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Stats: 17,231 members, 67,369 Topics, 15,134 Comments. Date: May 19 2019, 9:55 pm

QUESTION: What Is A THEORY? [Solved]

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Answered: What Is A THEORY? 5:49pm on May 2
Kanu Okoronkwo Silas
Abia State University
Political Science
200Level, Nigeria.
Theory
contemplative and rational type
of abstract or generalizing
thinking, or the results of such
thinkingA theory is a group of linked
ideas intended to explain
something. A theory provides a
framework for explaining
observations. The explanations
are based on assumptions. From
the assumptions follows a
number of possible hypotheses.
They can be tested to provide
support for, or challenge, the
theory.
The word 'theory' has several
meanings:
1. a guess or speculation
2. a law about things which
cannot be seen directly, such as
electrons or evolution
3. a whole system of laws and
hypotheses which explain many
things.
4. a field of study
These meanings can "shade into
each other".[1] Another source
offers: [2]
1. hypothesis, but not verified
2. systematically organised
knowledge
3. explanation
A theory in science (in contrast to
a theory in layman's terms) is "a
logical, systematic set of
principles or explanation that has
been verified—has stood up
against attempts to prove it
false".[3] For example, Darwin's
theory of Evolution is a system of
ideas that points to humans and
apes having evolved from a
common ancestor. This
conclusion is based on evidence
that supports it.
Logical consistency
One basic thing needed by a
theory is not to defeat itself. If
someone argued that every
action a human being takes in life
is predetermined before that
person is even born, and also
argued that a human being will
determine his or her future
according to the acts that he or
she freely wills, there is a
contradiction.
This idea is called "the principle of
non-contradiction", not saying
the opposite of what you just
said. If we consider any
statement, A (perhaps A stands
for "The Apple has a worm in it.",
then A and the contradiction of A
is always false. (In logical
symbolism, the single statement
"A ∧ ¬A" has a truth value of 0 or
false.)
Practical consistency
A theory that can produce a
statement that is not true, a
theory that can predict
something that does not in fact
happen, or that predicts that
something will happen but it
does not happen, is not a correct
theory. This idea has a big hole to
fall into. Scientists can look at
experiment after experiment, and
they may always find that what
theory says is true. Years may
pass, and then somebody looks at
one more experiment. That
experiment shows that the
theory is false, and every time
they do that experiment it shows
that the first time was not some
kind of accident. The philosopher
Karl Popper gave the example of
people in Europe before 1492
who wanted to give scientific
descriptions of birds. One bird
they worked on was the swan.
Somebody proposed the idea, "All
swans are white." All of the
swans that were checked in their
century were white. When
Europeans first sailed to Australia,
the first swan that they saw was
black. Suddenly the old scientific
description of swans had to be
changed.
So it is never possible to prove
conclusively that some theory is
correct. A "black swan" may come
with the next experiment. It is
possible to prove some theories
are incorrect. Science makes
progress by using one theory
until it fails, trying to understand
why that theory failed, and then
making a better theory. Some
theories are very well confirmed,
that means that they have been
tried over and over again and
have never yet failed. When a
theory is well confirmed people
trust its predictions.
It is possible to prove
conclusively that some theory is
incorrect. Proving a theory is
incorrect makes it possible to find
a better theory and thus to make
progress.

1 UpVote

What Is A THEORY? 10:08am on April 20
Aersaa Kayleb Aondofa
, Nigeria.
Theory is an explanation for patterns in nature supported by scientific evidence and verified various times by researchers I.e Newton's theory of gravity

1 UpVote

What Is A THEORY? 9:14am on April 19
Adelani Temiloluwa
School Of Nursing Ondo
Nursing Student
300Level, Nigeria.

In everyday use, the word "theory" often means an untested hunch, or a guess without supporting evidence. But for scientists, a theory has nearly the opposite meaning. A theory is a well-substantiated explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can incorporate laws, hypotheses and facts. The theory of gravitation, for instance, explains why apples fall from trees and astronauts float in space. Similarly, the theory of evolution explains why so many plants and animals--some very similar and some very different--exist on Earth now and in the past, as revealed by the fossil record.

0 UpVote

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