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QUESTION: Four Basic Problems Of An Economy [Solved]

Nigeria Student Forum / Questions / Economics / Four Basic Problems Of An Economy

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Answered: Four Basic Problems Of An Economy 5:34pm on March 6
Fadeyi Oluwaseun
Ladoke Akintola University Ogbomosho
B.tech Marketing Management
200Level, Nigeria.

1 – What to Produce?
What does a society do when the resources are limited? It decides which goods/service it wants to produce. Further, it also determines the quantity required. For example, should we produce more guns or more butter? Do we opt for capital goods like machines, equipment, etc. or consumer goods like cell phones, etc.? While it sounds elementary, a society must decide the type and quantity of every single good/service to be produced.

2 – How to Produce?
The production of a good is possible by various methods. For example, you can produce cotton cloth using handlooms, power looms or automatic looms. While handlooms require more labor, automatic looms need a higher power and capital investment.

Hence, a society must choose between the techniques to produce the commodity. Similarly, for all goods and/or services, similar decisions are necessary. Further, the choice depends on the availability of different factors of production and their prices. Usually, a society opts for a technique that optimally utilizes its available resources.

3. For whom to Produce?
Think about it – can a society satisfy each and every human wants? Certainly not. Therefore, it has to decide on who gets what share of the total output of goods and services produced. In other words, the society decides on the distribution of the goods and services among the members of the society.

4 – What provision should be made for economic growth?
Can a society use all its resources for current consumption? Yes, it can. However, it is not likely to do so. The reason is simple. If a society uses all its resources for current consumption, then its production capacity would never increase.

Therefore, the standard of living and the income of a member of the society will remain constant. Subsequently, in the future, the standard of living will decline. Hence, a society must decide on the part of the resources that it wants to save for future progress.


Source: https://www.toppr.com/guides/business-economics/introduction-to-business-economics/basic-problems-of-an-economy/

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