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66th LASU Inaugural Lecture: Body Fuels In Health And Diseases - Prof. Oluwole Adedeji

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On Tuesday, 6th February 2018, Prof Oluwole Olanrewaju Adedeji, a Professor of Chemical Pathology and Head of Chemical Pathology, #LASUCOM delivered the 66th Inaugural Lecture of the University. The title of the Lecture is "Body Fuels In Health and Diseases".

With the guests filling the seats in the expansive Auditorium of the University to its capacity, the Academic procession kick started the Lecture in earnest.

In 2017, he - Prof. Oluwole, was recognized to have made a significant contribution to the study of Diabetes in Nigeria

INTRODUCTION
The verse from the Bible summarises the day's lecture was 'FEED ME WITH FOOD THAT IS NEEDFUL FOR ME'(PROV. 30:8 ) . Lipids (Fats) and Carbohydrates (Sugar) are the major sources of energy needed by the body for daily activities and wellbeing.

Alterations in the metabolisms (handling by the body) of these fuels can portend severe health conditions with adverse economic consequences. The disoders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms result in diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, obesity, stroke and diabetes mellitus.

STUDIES ON LIPIDS AND DISEASES
Lipids or fats are found in diets e.g egg yolk, dairy products, red meat and Cooking oil. In the human body, they are found as components of cells, tissues and organs. The major lipids include fatty acid, cholesterol, trigyceride, and phospholipid.

Fatty acids could be saturated (no double bond) e. g. Animal fat, butter or unsaturated (with one or more double bond) e. g vegetable oil, olive oil.

Lipids are, also, found in blood/plasma where they are bound to proteins as complexes known as lipoproteins. These include Chylomicrons, Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), Intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), Low density lipoproteins (LDL, atherogenic) , and High density lipoproteins (HDL, cardio-protective).

INVESTIGATION
We investigated the associations between abnormal lipid metabolism (resulting in dyslipidaemia) and the development of diseases such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, infertility and foetal growth in pregnancy.

HYPERTENSION
Lipid deposition in the arterial walls, due to its increased level in blood, produces lesion (atheroma ), which causes damage and reduction of the lumen (or inner diameter ) of the artery. Fat is one of the major causes of hypertension

OBESITY
Hypertension was shown to be positively correlated to the degree of obesity (Adedeji, O.O. 1991, 1992)(2,3). Further, abnormal plasma lipid levels (dyslipidaemias) were shown to be associated with both conditions.
The explanation was that obese individuals have excess lipid which could be depositef in their arterial walls. This could be responsible for the increased risk of hypertension among the obese individuals.
In addition, our findings showed that weight reduction had dual effects of lowering plasma lipid and blood pressure

5. DIABETES MELLITUS
A positive association was found between tge lipid levels of non-insulin dependent or type 2 diabetes and their glucose levels (Adedeji, O.O. 1991)(4). It was shown that improved glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes reduced the lipid levels of these patients as well as their cardiovascular risk (Adedeji, O.O. 1997)(5).

LIPID AND INFERTILITY
we reported the association between plasma lipid level and vitamin E. Low level of plasma lipid resulted in reduced vitamin E level. We found an association between the occurence of infertility among Nigeria women in their reproduction years and low vitamin E level in their plasma.

EFFECTS OF DIETS AND LIFESTYLE HABITS ON LIPID LEVEL
The findings from the studies on diet, alcohol consumption and physical exercise as determinants of plasma lipid levels, provided the evidence that changes in life style and habits could reduce high blood lipid level, blood pressure and weight. Prudent dietry patterns and exercise were associate with lower blood lipid levels.

LIPID OF HEALTHY NIGERIANS
The lipid level of healthy Nigerians was gound to be relatively much lower than those of Caucasians and White Americans. These findings were associated to the Nigerian life style of low fat intake, involvement in some degree of physical activity coupled with their week genetic predisposition to hyperlipidaemia.

Presently, the trend in the Nigerian population is changing. Many people have imbibed the cultures, diets, life styles and habit of the Caucasians and Americans. The consequences invlude increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cancer anf other conditions in our population.

VITAMIN D

This hormone is responsible for bone growth and it plays an important role during pregnancy. The outcome of pregnancy was shown to be dependent on the maternal plasma of vitamin D.
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the pregnant women was 29%. The results showed positive associations between vitamin D deficiency has been shown to predispose to diabetes mellitus.

10. RECOMMENDATIONS
1. There is need for government policy and population health intervention targeting, reduction of unhealthy food consumption and unhealthy life styles, including lack of exercise.
2. There should be state sponsored wide spread media publicity of tge dangers of hypertension, coronary heart diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus.
3. Regular laboratory check-ups of health parameters by individuals should be encouraged to prevent or allow timely intervention that could ameliorate or cure of diseases conditions.
4. Funding of the health sector should be improved to achieve WHO objective of health for all in 2020 (including maternal and child health).
5. Above all, always eat healthy food.

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