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Adeyemi Adejoke
Ebonyi State University (EBSU)
400Level, Nigeria.

Bird poultry business.
This business is widely done in Nigeria; not just Nigeria but all over the world. If managed properly this business could really be a good source of income. Poultry meat is one of the two most widely eaten types of meat globally. In order to turn this business into a money pumping business, it has to be done commercially. It yeilds more income when it's done on a large scale.

This business is a tough one, if it lacks proper management and care of the birds you could suffer a huge loss, so know that if your are starting this business you have to be ready to give it your best. Though sometimes even when your best is given, some of the birds may die due to one illness or the other, but that shouldn't be a discouragement to you. Birds get infected in the rainy season, so proper vaccines should be given to them.

Why poultry farming business is considered a lucrative business.
1. The preference of white meat to red meat by consumers has given room for individuals to make money out of this business.

2. Poultry products has made their way into the market as one of the top sold meat. Everyone; both young and old eat poultry products.

3. Initial capital outlay. The initial capital is low compared with some other investments. With as little as N50,000.00, you can start with 100 day old chicks and in less than three months you are selling fully grown chickens or selling eggs.

Branches of poultry farm business.

Choice of the type of poultry business you would want to start. There are basically four different branches of poultry business commonly available you can choose to go into, they include:

Broilers breeding: You can go into this branch for meat production. The day old chicks grow in less than three months

Breeding of layers: This is for egg production, chickens lay eggs for an average of two years and five months before becoming weak. They can be sold off at this stage.

Production of poultry feeds. This is another area you can do business, since the market is readily available. Those in the business of raising day old chicks must buy feeds, all you have to do is to produce the best feeds and make contacts with poultry farmers.

Production of poultry equipments. This is a huge market on its own. Poultry equipments are so many, you can choose to produce some of them, they include:-

Feeders: the device for supplying feeds to the birds

Waterers: The device used for supplying water to the birds

Nests: The place chickens lay eggs.

Cages: Boxes made specially for keeping birds

Coops: a place where the birds are housed.

Incubators: Device to keep eggs warm until they are hatched.

Perches: Place of rest for birds

Brooders or heaters: A heated structure for raising young fowl.

Waste/disposal system

What is required to start a poultry business.

Before starting this business, proper arrangements has to be made. Firstly you must have an experience on how this business works. Bird poultry is a delicate business and just anyone cannot go into it when they don't have experience of how it runs.
Aside from the fact that money is mostly required, experience and expertise is also required. If you do not have the experience then at least get a staff who's experienced in birds poultry. If you are sure of this part, then you can move on to the next stage.

Why this poultry business is considered a delicate business.

1. The poultry farm may experience disease outbreak. If the disease is not controlled quickly, it may be disastrous.

2. Making mistakes in poultry business is dangerous. If the wrong vaccine is given to the chicks it cause their death leading to a huge loss.

3. When low quality feed is given to the birds it may cause malnutrition of the birds.

The next step is deciding on broiler breeding or egg breeding or both and have your capital ready.

This area depends solely on how much capital you have to invest and how capable you are to manage them. If you can't handle both, then it's best you choose one.

If your capital is in the range of a million naira or above, you could get a plot of land to put up the structure of your poultry business. Put in mind that you must consult an expert in this area so as not to lose money unnecessarily.

The two areas to invest are commonly undertakings by many people, i. e broiler chicken for meat and layers for egg.

The next stage will be, getting the capital for your business.

You can take a loan from the bank if you do not have capital or your capital isn't enough. If you are getting a loan from the bank, then that is the more reason you should work hard in making the business a success, because you will have to return the money back. Now you will know that failure is not even an option.

You may have your own capital to start the business, but it doesn't mean you are allowed to do as you please; you have to remember the goal you have set out for yourself, and that is; profits and expansion of the business has to be made

You should also make a list of the equipments you will need, and other things or settlements you will spend money for. After doing this you will know how much capital is needed to invest on your business.

The other stage is getting a location for your poultry.

Since you are going for a large scale, your poultry house has to be built on a spacious land. Meaning, you have to purchase a land for the poultry house. You can get your land at an unpopulated area. Lands are quite cheaper at places that are yet to be developed, and the nature of your business calls for such an area; i mean the noise and odour coming from the birds isn't good for human consumption. That is why why your location should be away from town(residential areas).

Moreover, it is disallowed by law for commercial poultry business to be done close to residential areas, so getting a land in such an area as said above is idea. But put in mind that the place should have good infrastructures like electricity, good road, adequate security and good water supply. The location you choose should be a safe place for your birds, and should also be close to the market. Getting a perfect location is important.

Putting up a poultry farm structure.
There are three types of structures for your poultry, they are:

Free roaming system: Here the chicks are given the freedom to roam about and fend for themselves. It is highly not recommended since you do not have control of the birds.

The sawdust system: The house where the birds are kept is filled with sawdust and the chicks can move freely about within the enclosure. The sawdust must be changed frequently in order to keep the chicks safe from disease.

The caging system: Here the birds are housed in cages. Different sizes of cages for different sizes of chicks. In this battery caging system, there is always provisions for the feeding of the birds, laying of eggs and dropping by the birds. The battery caging system is highly recommended because each group of birds are housed in a separate cage that it gives the birds freedom of association, but it could be more expensive. For commercial purposes, the battery caging system and the sawdust system must be large enough to give the birds freedom and good ventilation.

Equipments for the poultry farm.

The equipments needed for poultry farming are many, and all of them are important. If you are going into commercial poultry farming, it is advisable to get all the equipments needed so as to ease the work on the poultry.

Workers for the poultry.

If you are operating at a low scale, i. e between 150 and 400 chicks, you can safely manage it yourself, but if more than; you employ some workers to help run the daily activities of the poultry business. If you are a beginner, you can start on a low scale; that way, you will be able to sturdy the business and gradually grow and expand it.

If you have no ideas on how to run a poultry farm, it is required of you to employ an expert with enough experience to guide you and teach you on how to run the business.

Buying your chicks.

On your quest of doing this, you must research for the trust poultry farmers and buy from them. Avoid the risks of buying unhealthy and infected chicks, or chicks that were not properly bred in terms of good nutrition.

Feeding the chicks.

At the initial stage, you can begin with already prepared feeds until you are conversant with the feeds production. So buy already prepared feeds from trusted feeds sellers and wait until such a time you can prepare the feeds yourself.

Please for the medication rules, you must vaccinate the birds at the right time and always provide them with clean water as well as maintain proper hygiene to keep the birds healthy.

Selling the products.

You must begin consultation from the outset of the retailers of eggs and know the prices that they buy crates of eggs. Collect their names and addresses and inform them that you have a farm and that in a particular time you will begin to supply them with eggs. You must make similar contacts for the sale of live chicken.

So, if you have it in you to start up this business, then go for it. If it is managed properly, it could really be a good source of income, and yield massive profit. Follow the steps above with none omitted and you will surely make profit, and there after expand your poultry business.

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