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Fadeyi Oluwaseun
Ladoke Akintola University Ogbomosho
B.tech Marketing Management
200Level, Nigeria.
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Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that pass from one person to another through sexual contact.
They are also known as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or venereal diseases (VD).

Some STDs can spread through the use of unsterilized drug needles, from mother to infant during childbirth or breast-feeding, and blood transfusions.

Most common ones;
*Chlamydia* is an STD caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). This bacterium only infects humans. Chlamydia is the most common infectious cause of genital and eye diseases globally. It is also the most common bacterial STD.
*Chancroid* is also known as soft chancre and ulcus molle. It is a bacterial infection caused by called streptobacillus Haemophilus ducreyi. The infection causes painful sores on the genitals and is only spread through sexual contact.
Genital herpes
This STD is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). The virus affects the skin, cervix, genitals, and some other parts of the body. There are two types:

HSV-1, also known as herpes type 1
HSV-2, also known as herpes type 2

Herpes is a chronic condition. A significant number of individuals with herpes never show symptoms and do not know about their herpes status.
Trichomoniasis is a common STD that can affect both sexes. However, women are more likely to experience symptoms. The infection is caused by a single-celled protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis.

For women, the vagina is the most common site of infection, while for men it is the urethra. Transmission may occur either by sexual intercourse or vulva-to-vulva contact.
*Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)* attacks the immune system, leaving its host much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. If the virus is left untreated, the susceptibility to infection worsens.

HIV can be found in semen, blood, breast milk, and vaginal and rectal fluids. HIV can be transmitted through blood-to-blood contact, sexual contact, breast-feeding, childbirth, the sharing of equipment to inject drugs, such as needles and syringes, and, in rare instances, blood transfusions

Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Human papillomavirus is a name for a group of viruses that affect the skin and mucous membranes, such as the throat, cervix, anus, and mouth.

There are over 100 types of HPV, of which, about 40 can affect the genital areas. These types may also transmit to the mouth and throat.
Syphilis
Syphilis is the result of Treponema pallidum, a bacterium. It is transmitted by sexual contact, and the person passing on the infection will have a syphilitic lesion. A woman who is pregnant and also has syphilis can pass on this STD to her baby, which can result in stillbirth or serious congenital deformities.
Gonorrhea
This sexually transmitted bacterial infection usually attacks the mucous membranes. It is also known as the clap or the drip.
The bacterium, which is highly contagious, stays in the warmer and moister cavities of the body.
The majority of women with gonorrhea show no signs or symptoms. If left untreated, females may develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Males may develop inflammation of the prostate gland, urethra, or epididymis.

The disease is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The bacteria can survive in the vagina, penis, mouth, rectum, or eye. They can be transmitted during sexual contact.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES;
#Sex using a condom is the safest way to prevent the spread of STDs amidst partners. Condoms are known as barrier contraceptives, due to their presentation of a physical barrier to microbes.
For each oral, vaginal, or anal sex act, use a new latex condom. Condoms are available to purchase online and anywhere.

#Avoid using an oil-based lubricant, such as petroleum jelly, when using a latex condom. Non-barrier forms of contraception, such as oral contraceptives or intrauterine devices, do nothing to protect people from sexually transmitted infections.

Here are other steps you can take to reduce the risk of an STD:

*Abstinence:Abstaining from any sexual act is the most effective way to avoid an STD.

*Monogamy to one uninfected partner:A long-term, monogamous relationship with one person who is not infected can reduce the risk of contracting an STD.

There are vaccinations that can protect an individual from eventually developing some types of cancer that are caused by HPV and hepatitis B.

*Check for infections: Before sexual intercourse with a new partner, check that the partner and yourself have no STDs.

*Drink alcohol in moderationeople who have consumed too much alcohol are more likely to engage in risky behavior. Avoid using recreational drugs, which may also affect judgment.

*Explain you want safe sex:Before engaging in any sexual act with a new partner, communicate that you would only consider safe sex.

*Education;Parents, Partners and society need to teach themselves and children about the importance of safe sex, and explain how to prevent becoming infected with an STD, including information relevant to the community.

Signs and symptoms.
This depend on the type of STD. But most common are;
Vaginal or penis itching
Painful or burninig urination
Vaginal or penis discharge.
Rash, fever, headache.
Small, painless bumps on the vaginal
Frothy discharge with bad odour.

Complication;
Infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory diseases
Cirrhosis and liver cancer
Treatment;
This is narrowed down to the cause of the STD and type of STD.
But most STDs are treatable with antibiotics(injection, oral pills, liquid or pessaries) been reacted to by individual during a microscopic cultured and sensitivity test.

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