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Starting A Poultry Farming Business.. by saninng (m): 7:38pm on August 23
Sani Ibrahim
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa,University
Agricultural economics and extension
100Level, Nigeria.
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Poultry farming can be said to be the process of various domestic birds like chickens,turkey,ducks,geese etc for their eggs or meat. This has become a common practice in Africa for such a long time that it has become an indispensable part of the farming and agriculture system.
Poultry farming can be considered as one of the most lucrative agricultural business ideas in Africa today. It requires not huge capital to start as you can start from the comfort of your house if you have enough space to take the number of birds that you desire .
The demand for livestock product including Poultry is fast expanding in Africa as a result of population growth and increased urbanization.
Poultry farming is one of the fastest growing segment in the agricultural industry in Africa.
According to Nigeria's "This day Newspaper" Nigeria's Poultry and industry is worth over N1.2tn as of 2017.
Amongst all kinds of Poultry farming(chickens,turkeys,geese,and ducks) chicken is the most common one as farmers get a great number of chickens regularly either the eggs for food or the farming meat.
The high consumption of the end product; chicken and egg are in constant demand in the market place and even at various homes in Africa today, and this makes Poultry farming very lucrative as it seems to be a potent source of animal protein alongside fish,pork and beef.
Steps to Starting A Poultry Farming.

__production type.
__Farm/land location.
__Health management.

Step1- Production type:
Before you start your Poultry farming business venture, it is important to have a clear picture of what type Poultry breeds to form (most importantly breeds that lay a lot of eggs.) In Africa today aside from locally grown chickens, there are two to three other major breeds that are common among Poultry farmers.
__Broilers :.
Young males and females raised for meat, that grow from a hatch weight of 40g to weight of approximately 1.5 to 2kg within 6 weeks only .
Hens used for commercial egg production and then killed for meat. Layer chickens are raised from one day old, They start laying eggs at the age of 18-19 weeks and continue until they are 72-78 weeks of age.
Just like the broilers, cockerels are also for meat production and have a special market demand, but it's growth is very slow unlike the broilers that grow very fast. Cockerels can survive in many environments.
Step 2 – Select A Suitable Farm Location/Site

Where your poultry farm is situated is very important for your business. To start poultry, you need a farm site. The size of the poultry farmland should be determined by the number of birds you want to rear. If you have enough land at your backyard and can’t afford to acquire a new site, its always better to start small. You can start with what you have but make it a priority to get a better farm as soon as you can afford it.

A good poultry farm site should be away from the chaos and hustle-bustle of the city. It should be calm and pollution free environment. The farm must have adequate, clean and fresh drinking water sources nearby. Also, the site must be free of poultry enemies and predators like foxes and leopards. The site must be easily accessible from main roads so as to ease the transportation of farm products when they are ready for sale.

Step 3 – Provide Good Housing And Shelter For The Birds

When it comes to poultry farming, housing is the next important factor after getting a farm site. A proper poultry housing is necessary for the protection and survival of your commercial poultry birds. The Housing system you choose totally depends on the poultry breeds and farming method. Housing design varies in accordance with various types of poultry raising methods.

The housing to be built should be spacious enough to permit free movement and running of the birds. shelters must be raised adequately to prevent the risk of flooding. It should be spacious enough to permit free movement and running of the birds. In addition, the shelter must be adequately ventilated and protected from sunlight.

Step 4 – Feeding and Medication OF The Poultry BIRDS

For commercial poultry production, good quality, highly nutritious food is a must. Quality and neat feeds keep the bird healthy always and very productive. The feed must be kept clean and dry always, as contaminated feed can infect poultry. Fresh quality and nutritious food is the key to success in poultry farming business. Your birds need not lack water. Lack of adequate water supply can impede their growth.

Proper medication and vaccination can prevent many poultry diseases. As a commercial poultry farmer, you need to have a veterinary doctor that can come run a check on your birds when the need arises. There are various routine medications and vaccinations that help towards the healthiness of your birds to keep them safe from viruses and bacterial infections, peradventure they catch an infectious disease.

Step 5 – Marketing and Sales of THE POULTRY Birds

Poultry farming is a profitable business and the desire of every poultry farmer is to make good sales after every harvest. So you need to pay attention to the marketing and sales aspect of your business. Do not be caught up in the operational aspect of your business so much that you ignore the sales aspect.

Nevertheless, the following ideas can help you in the marketing and sales of your chicken; taking your business online, selling to hotels and restaurants, advertising your products, employing marketers, home delivery, etc.

Cost of Starting A Poultry Farming Business

Many new businesses require a large capital outlay, which is not within reach of most business owners. A typical startup business also takes a long time to produce a return on your investment. By contrast, a small-scale poultry business has a relatively low start-up cost and rapid returns.

You can begin with as little as N50,000 (which basically to covers the cost of buying the day-old chicks and feeding them) and get a 100% return on your capital investment within six months. And because chicks take only 21 days to hatch, you can start generating an income just three weeks after starting. No other business can provide such a quick turnaround.


Commercial poultry farming in has created and still creating a profitable business opportunity for Entrepreneurs and can provide a great employment source for job seekers. Most entrepreneurs prefer to produce day-old chicks and sell them to growers, as this option is easier and less risky. The choice, however, is up to you.

As a business owner, you need to get your business finances right from the onset and at the heart of these viable business opportunities in poultry farming are platforms, such online invoicing software that helps you keep proper track of your business revenues and expenses with ease.

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