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How To Understand The Hadeeth When The Prophet Instructed The One Who Prayed Badly To Repeat His Praye...?

Nigeria Student Forum / Books/Literature/Writing / Muslim's Forum / How To Understand The Hadeeth When The Prophet Instructed The One Who Prayed Badly To Repeat His Praye...? (16) Views

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Rufai Oladimeji
Lagos State University
English
100Level, Nigeria.
Question

How can I understand and join
between the hadeeth of when
Mu’awiyah said to a person who
sneezed “May Allah have mercy on
you” while he was praying, and the
Prophet, peace be upon him, did not
order him to repeat his prayer.
Mu’awiyah did not know that
external talk during the prayer
invalidates it. For the Prophet,
Peace be upon him, not to order
Mu’awiyah to repeat his prayer, this
means that his prayer is valid. And
the other hadeeth of when the
prophet, peace be upon him,
ordered the one who prayed badly to
repeat his prayer. This means his
prayers was invalid even though he
was ignorant of how to pray
properly?.

Answer

Praise be to Allaah.
The hadeeth of Mu’aawiyah ibn al-
Hakam was narrated by Muslim
(537) from Mu’aawiyah ibn al-
Hakam who said: Whilst I was
praying with the Messenger of
Allaah (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him), a man among
the people sneezed and I said:
Yarhamuk Allaah (may Allah have
mercy on you). The people glared at
me and I said: May my mother be
bereft of me! Why are you staring
at me? They started striking their
hands on their thighs, and when I
realized that they were telling me
to be quiet, (I felt angry) but I kept
quiet. When the Messenger of
Allaah (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) had prayed –
may my father and mother be
sacrificed for him; by Allaah I have
never seen a better teacher or
better teachings before or since; he
did not rebuke me, hit me or revile
me – he said: “This prayer is not the
right place for any of the people’s
speech, rather it is tasbeeh, takbeer
and recitation of Qur’aan.”
The hadeeth about the man who
prayed badly was narrated by al-
Bukhaari (757) and Muslim (397)
from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be
pleased with him), that the
Messenger of Allaah (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him)
entered the mosque and a man
came in and prayed, then he came
and greeted the Messenger of
Allaah (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him). The Messenger
of Allaah (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) returned the
greeting and said: “Go back and
pray, for you have not prayed.” The
man went back and prayed as he
had prayed before, then he came to
the Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) and greeted
him, and the Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be
upon him) said, “Wa ‘alayk al-
salaam.” Then he said: “Go back and
pray, for you have not prayed.”
When he had done that three times,
the man said: By the One Who sent
you with the truth, I cannot do
more than that. Teach me. He said:
“When you go to pray, say takbeer,
then recite whatever you can of the
Qur’aan. Then bow until you are at
ease in bowing, then rise until you
are standing up straight. Then
prostrate until you are at ease in
prostration, then sit up until you
are at ease in sitting. Then do that
throughout the entire prayer.”
Both ahaadeeth indicate that the
one who is ignorant is excused, but
in the hadeeth of Mu’aawiyah he is
not commanded to repeat the
prayer, whereas in the hadeeth of
the one who prayed badly, he is not
commanded to repeat the prayers
he had offered before, rather he
was commanded to repeat the
current prayer only.
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy
on him) said, commenting on the
hadeeth of Mu’aawiyah: As for the
words of the ignorant one, it was
because he was new in Islam, so
they are like the words of one who
forgets, so they did not invalidate
his prayer if they were few, because
of this hadeeth of Mu’aawiyah ibn
al-Hakam, which we are discussing
here, because the Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon
him) did not command him to repeat
the prayer. But he taught him that
it is haraam to talk during prayers
for future reference. End quote.
With regard to commanding the one
who prayed badly to repeat his
prayer when he did not command
Mu’aawiyah to do so, that is
because there is a difference
between doing that which is
forbidden and not doing that which
is enjoined. Omitting what is
enjoined is not excused because of
ignorance or forgetfulness when it
is possible to make it up, which is
unlike doing what is forbidden.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah
have mercy on him) said, in a
discussion of things that are
forbidden whilst in ihraam: The
correct view is that all of them may
be excused. If a person is excused
due to ignorance, forgetting or
being forced to do something , there
are no consequences to his actions
whatsoever, whether it has to do
with having intercourse, hunting,
clipping the nails, wearing tailored
garments or anything else. We have
mentioned above evidence from the
Qur’aan, Sunnah and rational
thought.
The same applies to all other actions
that are forbidden during acts of
worship; the ruling does not apply,
if they happen in cases of ignorance
forgetfulness or compulsion,
because of the general meaning of
the texts and because the penalty,
fidyah or kafaarah (expiation) is
only prescribed in order to
compensate for going against the
rules or to expiate sins, but the
ignorant, forgetful person or one
who is forced did not deliberately go
against the rules, and if he had
remembered, been aware or had the
choice he would not have done it.
If a person drinks by mistake in
Ramadaan (because he forgets he is
fasting), he does not have to make
it up. The evidence for that is the
hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (may
Allaah be pleased with him):
“Whoever forgets when he is fasting
and eats or drinks, let him complete
his fast, for it is Allaah Who has fed
him and given him to drink.” The
one who does not deliberately go
against the rule is not sinning and
does not have to offer any fidyah.
Similarly, when ‘Adiyy ibn Haatim
wanted to fast, he took a black
thread and a white thread, because
of the verse in which Allaah says
(interpretation of the meaning):
“and eat and drink until the white
thread (light) of dawn appears to
you distinct from the black thread
(darkness of night), then complete
your Sawm (fast) till the
nightfall” [al-Baqarah 2:187]. They
used to take the rulings directly
from the Qur'aan. But the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be
upon him) said to him: “Your pillow
must be very wide, if the black and
white threads are beneath your
pillow.” But he did not command
him to repeat the fast because he
was ignorant of the ruling.
Similarly, Asma’ bint Abi Bakr (may
Allaah be pleased with her) said
that they broke the fast on a cloudy
day at the time of the Messenger of
Allaah (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him), and he did not
command them to make it up –
because they were unaware of the
fact that the sun had not yet set.
The same applies to prayer. The
evidence is that Mu’aawiyah ibn al-
Hakam (may Allaah be pleased with
him) started to pray with the
Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) and a man
sneezed, so he said, “Yarhamuk-
Allaah (may Allaah have mercy on
you)” whilst he was praying. The
people glared at him – i.e., they
looked at him disapprovingly – and
he (may Allaah be pleased with him)
said, “May my mother be bereft of
me!”, i.e., he added more words to
what he had said. So they started to
slap their thighs with their hands to
make him be quiet, and he fell
silent. When he had said the
salaam, the Messenger (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him)
called him. Mu’aawiyah said: May
my father and mother be sacrificed
for him; by Allaah I have never
seen a better teacher or better
teachings before or since; he did not
rebuke me, hit me or revile me – he
said: “This prayer is not the right
place for any of the people’s speech,
rather it is tasbeeh, takbeer and
recitation of Qur’aan.” And he did
not tell him to repeat it because he
was unaware of the ruling.
The texts point to this principle,
which is not blaming people for
forgetting, not knowing, or being
forced to do something. This is what
is implied by the words of Allaah
(interpretation of the meaning):
“your Lord has written (prescribed)
Mercy for Himself, so that if any of
you does evil in ignorance, and
thereafter repents and does
righteous good deeds (by obeying
Allaah), then surely, He is
Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful”
[al-An’aam 6:54],
And the words of Allaah in the
hadeeth qudsi: “My mercy prevails
over My wrath.”
Omitting to do that which is
enjoined, however, is not excused
on the basis of forgetting, ignorance
or being forced, when it is possible
to make it up, because the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be
upon him) said: “Whoever sleeps
and misses a prayer or forgets it, let
him pray it when he remembers it.”
So it is not waved in the case of
forgetting. And because the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be
upon him) did not waive the current
prayer on the grounds of ignorance,
as we see in the hadeeth of the one
who prayed badly; he commanded
him to repeat it even though he was
ignorant, because he was omitting
to do something enjoined.
Moreover, it is possible to make up
things that are enjoined, but
forbidden things are over and done
with. But if a person is doing
something that is forbidden, he
should stop doing it as soon as he
realizes. If someone says that
Allaah’s words (interpretation of the
meaning): “Our Lord! Punish us not
if we forget or fall into error” [al-
Baqarah 2:286] are general in
meaning and include both omitting
things that are enjoined and doing
things that are forbidden, the
response is that that is indeed the
case; the one who does not do
something that is enjoined out of
ignorance or because he forgets will
not be punished for not doing it, but
not doing it means that he is
obliged to discharge his duty once
the excuse is no longer applicable.
End quote from al-Sharh al-
Mumti’ (7/200).
And Allaah knows best.

islamqa.info/en/answers/117779/how-to-understand-the-hadeeth-when-the-prophet-instructed-the-one-who-prayed-badly-to-repeat-his-prayer-and-not-ordering-muawiyah-to-repeat-it

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