Welcome, Guest: Join Nigeria Student Forum / Login / Trending Now / Recent Topics

Stats: 29,324 Members, 81,038 Topics, 16,371 Comments. Date: Aug 13 2020, 3:46 pm

SPECIAL: Gain Admission Into 200 Level To Study In Any University Via IJMB | CAMBRIDGE | JUPEB | NO JAMB | LOW FEES | Call 07063085343, 08086347092 To Register!

Taamas111's Posts

Nigeria Student Forum / Taamas111's Profile / Taamas111's Posts

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

NSF Banner Ads NSF Banner Ads NSF Banner Ads

5. Stabbed, Sliced, and Diced

Goldfish, guppies, and betta fish may all
be extremely safe pets, but did you know
that quite a few of the little fish you see
in aquarium shops and home tanks could
never come close to biting you but still
leave you running for the emergency
room? That is because a number of the
most beautiful small tropical fish
available are concealed-carry dagger
masters. They hide their razor sharp
bony knives in the strangest places, while
other fish surreptitiously swim around
with a venom-bearing hypodermic
needle of sorts on their back, ready to
sting like a wasp or scorpion.

Clown Loaches are ever popular
freshwater aquarium fish but beneath
their eyes lie folding, extremely sharp,
knife-like bony blades. If provoked, the
animals can slice into your hand and
cause a nasty injury. In the case of tangs
— the colorful, roughly disk-shaped
tropical fish — they can inflict a nasty
cut with sharp bony blades located near
their tail fins. If that wasn’t enough, a
wide variety of aquarium catfish possess
venom-bearing spines in their fins that
may inflict a nasty sting should you be
careless enough to pick them up without
a fish net.

4. Cat Scratch Fever

Cat scratches may be painful, but the
resulting infection could send you to the
hospital. These popular tiny relatives of
tigers and lions are carriers of Bartonella
henselae bacteria, which causes the
illness popularly termed “cat scratch
fever.” The affliction presents as a
cluster of symptoms that may include
blistering, exhaustion, headaches,
lymphatic swelling, fever, weight loss,
and a sore throat. The disease is far
from harmless and it is surprisingly
prevalent. The Centers for Disease
Control states that around 12,000 people
are estimated to contract the condition
yearly. Of those 12,000 , about 500
sufferers end up in the hospital.
Antibiotics may be required in cases
prone to complications, while lymphatic
swelling may take a year to go down.
Severe complications, while less
common, are nonetheless horrendous.
These scary problems include
encephalopathy, which can bring about
permanent damage to the brain or death
following a bacterial invasion of the
brain, neuroretinitis, which blurs vision,
but subsides in most cases with time,
and osteomyelitis. This horrible
complication consists of bacterial bone
infection, which may require amputation
of affected parts. Parinaud
oculoglandular syndrome may result
from Bartonella henselae bacteria entry
into the eyes, requiring surgical removal
of infected eye tissue on occasion.

3. Pet Snail Perils

Snails may be slow, but their popularity
is quickly rising. The slow snail is also a
pet that may land you in a sticky medical
situation not-so-slowly. When choosing a
pet snail, you have your choice of
marine, terrestrial, or freshwater
gastropods, as snails are technically
called. Snails can range from the minute
to the enormous, just like the diverse
array of parasites they can carry. Eating
freshwater snails can cause
schistosomiasis, an exceptionally
dangerous disease also known as snail
fever, caused when humans are
parasitized by flatworms, or flukes in the
genus schistosoma.
Large outbreaks worldwide are
responsible for hundreds of thousands of
deaths, making it the second deadliest
tropical disease after malaria. Infection
occurs when infectious larvae enter
human skin, then cause internal damage.
Many cases have occurred in China
following Yangtze River flooding.

Terrestrial snails like Giant African Land
Snails or Roman Snails may be viewed as
good, easy starter pets for children or
curious hobbyists, but if a child ingests
a small snail — an easy occurrence — rat
lungworm infection may result as the
mollusks are hosts for these grotesque
parasites. Perhaps most terrifying of all,
the rat lungworms can burrow into the
spinal cord and brain, potentially causing
paralysis or death.

2. Amphibian Bites

OK. We get it. The unusual, the strange.
In the search for something truly
different, you opt not for a reptile, but
an amphibian as an exotic pet. What
could be more harmless and cute than a
salamander or frog? Actually, while these
creatures are indeed soft and fragile to
the touch, many of the most popular pet
species grow to a substantial size and are
armed to the teeth, literally. Take the
Pacman Frog , a popular and cartoonish
little terrarium pet easily picked up at a
pet shop near you. Though it can go in a
20-gallon tank, this creature is toothy,
may bite your finger, and when it does,
expect blood. Scientists have discovered
that this mere frog bites down with 30
Newtons, or 6.6 pounds of force when it
clamps its target.

Moving on to salamanders, the
deceptively eel-like Two-Toed Amphiuma
— a huge, aquatic salamander sometimes
mistakenly called a Congo Eel — poses a
threat to the careless aquarist. Actually
of American origin, native to the
Southwestern States, the creature is the
third largest salamander and capable of
inflicting some very painful gashes when
provoked. You would think a snake had
gotten you. The same goes for species
like the beautiful and renowned Tiger
Salamander. The striped amphibian also
packs quite a bite. If bitten, watch out
for infections, and always be aware of
salmonella when near amphibians.

1. Oh Deer

Deer are herbivores. So what could go
wrong if you decided not to have a
friendly but potentially bite-inflicting dog
on your property, opting instead for a
small member of the Cervidae? A lot, it
turns out. Deer won’t eat meat, but are
aggressive for other reasons and may
leave a naïve keeper as a ready meal for
a scavenger. In a tragic Australian
incident that happened in Wangaratta,
close to Melbourne, a 47-year-old man
named Paul McDonald was fatally
roughed up by his pet deer , which he
kept on the property he shared with his
wife, who was also attacked after she
came with her son in response to her
husband’s screams.

Police officers responded and shot the
deer, which was described as a hybrid
deer, the result of the mating of a Red
Deer and a larger deer species, an Elk,
also known as a Wapiti. The main
dangers from a deer attack do not come
from bites, instead being presented by
the mass of the animal and concentrated
force delivered by blows from the hoofs
and sharply-pointed antler racks. The
territorial nature of deer and
unpredictable behavior of these animals
makes them questionable choices as a


0 Like

The Vietnam War saw a lot of guerrilla warfare.

Although guerrilla warfare was not a new
tactic, it was used heavily by the Viet Cong in
support of the northern government.

This made it difficult for their enemy to find
them, and involved setting up hundreds of
booby traps which caused injuries and deaths
to their opponents.

One of the main tactics of guerrilla warfare
was to make it difficult for the enemy to
discover their opponents. This caused anger
and frustration among many of the enemy
troops in the South, who became unaware of
who their enemies were and lost trust in their

President Nixon had a different plan for the war.

When Richard Nixon became President of the
United States in 1969, he wanted to bring the
US troops out of Vietnam and leave the
fighting to the Vietnamese soldiers.

However, many US citizens did not approve of
the move to invade Laos and Cambodia,
promoting protests up and down the country.

North Vietnam eventually won the war.

While many people know about the Vietnam
War, not everybody knows how it ended. After
peace talks in Paris, the fighting in Vietnam
continued, until the South surrendered to the
communist North in 1975.

This was partly due to the United States troops
withdrawing two years previously, leaving the
South too weak to continue on its own with
any great strength or power to overcome the

In 1976, Vietnam was united as the Socialist
Republic of Vietnam.

Sadly, the Vietnam War caused devastation and
harm for thousands of civilians and soldiers,
and continues to be remembered as one of the
world’s longest and most deadly wars.

Nowadays, Vietnam attracts plenty of tourists,
many of whom come to pay tribute to those
who lost their lives or visit the memorials, but
also to see the beauty of the country despite
the historic conflict and tragedies.


0 Like

Neptune’s moon, Triton, orbits the planet backwards.

Triton is the only large moon of any of the
planets that does this.

This is known as a retrograde orbit and
astronomers are unsure as to why Triton orbits
Neptune this way.

Triton is gradually getting closer to the planet it orbits.

Scientists believe that when Triton eventually
gets too close to Neptune, it will be torn apart
by the planet’s gravity and could potentially
create another ring around Neptune – giving it
more rings than Saturn.

There are more stars in space than there are grains of sand in the world.

There are 10 times more stars in the night sky
than grains of sand on the Earth, with 70
sextillion stars being visible from Earth
through a telescope.
To put that in numbers, 70 sextillion is this:

Neptune takes nearly 165 Earth years to make one orbit of the Sun.

That’s equivalent to 60,190 Earth days to orbit
the sun once! Neptune has a very slow orbital
speed of 3.37 miles per second (5.43 km/s).

This means that since it was discovered in
1846, it has only completed just one orbit!

Pluto’s largest moon, Charon, is half the size of Pluto.

The same surfaces of Charon and Pluto always
face each other, which is known as mutual
tidal locking.

Credit: www.thefactsite.com

0 Like

5. B-29 Superfortress

In the closing months of WWII, U.S.
President Harry S. Truman faced a
difficult decision: continue a protracted
war in the Pacific against a beleaguered
enemy, or become the first nation to use
nuclear weapons on people. Ultimately,
“Give ‘em Hell Harry” chose the latter —
and tasked the Boeing B-29
Superfortress for the top-secret mission
over Japan.

As the Allies prepared for D-Day, the
B-29 conducted its first combat
operation thousands of miles away in
Axis-partnered Thailand. The attack
would serve as a precursor to an
ambitious bombing strategy of the
Japanese mainland, designed by Major
General Curtis LeMay of the XXI Bombing
Command. At the time, the B-29 was the
largest and most advanced bomber ever
built, featuring a pressurized cabin,
analog computer controls, automated
gun stations and four Wright Duplex
Cyclone 2,200-hp engines. More
importantly, however, the high-altitude
aircraft had a range of 3250 miles and a
massive payload capacity.

The Superfortress also proved to be an
effective, nighttime low-altitude bomber
that included several devastating raids
on Tokyo. However, when the Japanese
refused to surrender, Truman gave the
green light to utilize two types of atomic
bombs developed by the Manhattan
Project. A modified, lighter (and mostly
unarmed) version of the B-29 called
“Silverplate” were modified for the
monumental operation.

Finally, on August 6, 1945, the “Enola
Gay” dropped the world’s first atomic
bomb on Hiroshima. Three days later,
the “Bockscar” dropped its payload on
Nagasaki. Japan surrendered shortly
afterward. They remain the only two
nuclear weapons ever used in combat.

4. F-86 Sabre

Yankees-Red Sox. Lakers-Celtics. Army-
Navy. Great rivalries often bring out the
best in opposing teams. The same can be
said of the fierce battles fought between
the F-86 Sabre and MiG-15 in the Korean
War. Oddly, however, sometimes evenly
matched sides can produce lopsided
results regardless of who’s calling the
shots. Such was the case of America’s
first transonic fighter jet that
consistently schooled the Soviet-made
(and frequently Soviet-piloted) Mikoyan-
Gurevich — better known as the MiG.
The F-86 Sabre easily makes this list as
one of the feared and successful combat
jets of all time. Owning an impressive kill
ratio of 10:1 while dueling over “MiG
Alley” , the U.S. warbird had plenty to
crow about. Produced by North
American Aviation (same maker as the
P-51 Mustang) beginning in 1949, the
Sabre was also the first jet designed with
a swept wing to counter the leading edge
compression shock wave. Proving all is
fair in love and war, F-86 designers
capitalized on captured German
aerodynamic data from the
Messerschmitt Me 262, the world’s first
operational jet-powered fighter.
Most Sabres came equipped with six .50
M3 machine guns capable of firing 1,200
rounds per minute. Later variants could
carry up to 2,000 pounds worth of
bombs and/or air-to-ground rockets and
could reach an altitude of nearly 50,000
feet. In his “Beauteous Butch II,” Capt.
Joseph McConnell Jr. became the top
U.S. ace in the Korean war with 16
victories. It’s also worth noting that
future Mercury Astronaut and U.S.

Senator John “The MiG Mad Marine”
Glenn shot down three of the Soviet jets
in his F-86 pilot in 1953. (Insert second
“Right Stuff” pun here).
Over the years, nearly 10,000 F-86s
were produced in a multitude of variants
and became the primary jet fighter of
several Allied air forces until it was
finally retired in Bolivia in 1994.

3. Sea Harrier

The Falklands War between Great Britain
and Argentina turned out to be a short-
lived confrontation with a long-disputed
history dating back over 200 years. The
largely forgettable conflict lasted only 72
days, resulting in a resounding British
victory and the return of its Patagonian
lands that are home to more penguins
than people. However, the extraordinary
show put on by RAF Sea Harriers “Jump
Jets” provided a memorable performance
for the ages.
First developed by British aircraft
manufacturer Hawker Siddeley in the late
1960s, the Harrier (named for a
tenacious bird of prey) became the first
operational jet airplane capable of
vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/
STOL). No runway? No problem.
Powered by a Rolls-Royce Pegasus
turbofan engine with two intakes and
four vector-able nozzles, the Harrier’s
ability to launch like a rocket and hover
like a helicopter (as well as reach a top
speed of 730 mph) put this versatile
weapon in a class all by itself when duty
called in the Spring of 1982.

The Argentine junta (Argentina’s military
regime) decided to flex some muscle and
invade the disputed rocky archipelago
off its deep southern coast. Buenos Ares
reasoned the action would provide a
distraction from the country’s recent
economic woes and hoped that the
United Kingdom wouldn’t bother to
respond militarily. Big mistake. Picking a
similar fight with Chile in the not-as-
challenging Beagle Conflict would have
been a much better idea.

The Royal Navy, as they’ve done for
centuries, quickly mobilized and barreled
into the open seas with all its maritime
might. But this time, they brought with
them a flock of Sea Harriers equipped
with AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles ready to
do the business. All totaled, jump jet
squadrons shot down 21 Argentine
planes (including much faster Mirage III
jets) in air-to-air combat without a single
air-to-air loss. In other words, a clean
sheet for the Three Lions.
But no need to cry for Argentina, folks.

Four years later, the South Americans
got their revenge when Diego Maradona’s
infamous “Hand of God” knocked England
out of the 1986 World Cup and
propelled the Argentines to another Copa
del Mundo. As for the Sea Harrier, the
vaunted aircraft would see additional
combat during the Balkans Crisis before
finally retiring in 2006.

2. B-2 Spirit

Boasting a flying wing design, stealth
technology, and looking more like
something you’d find in a Star Wars
movie, the B-2 Spirit would make even
Darth Vader quake in his boots. Plans for
this long-range strategic bomber had
been around since the 1970s and was
originally intended to carry nuclear
bombs deep into the former Soviet
Union just in case the Cold War suddenly
got boiling hot. But after countless
delays, costly budget overruns, and four
U.S. presidential administrations later,
the Northrup Grumman behemoth finally
became operational in 1997.

The two-seat bomber is powered by four
17,000-pound thrust General Electric
F-118 turbofans, can reach speeds of
just under Mach one, operate at 50,000
feet, hold a whopping 40,000 pounds of
ordnance (conventional or nuclear), and
fly for over 6,000 miles before refueling.
However, it’s main selling point is its
super sneaky stealth capabilities — which
helps explain its jaw-dropping adjusted
price tag of about 2.2 billion a pop.

As the second U.S. warplane with
advanced stealth technology following
the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk, the B-2’s
unique shape makes it virtually invisible
to radar. Additionally, the frame consists
of low-reflective carbon-fiber composites
and a special coating that further
reduces radar reflectivity — a service
probably not offered at your local body
and paint shop.

Stationed at Whiteman AFB near Kansas
City, Missouri, the Spirit first saw action
in the Kosovo War in 1999, and later
served in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Libya. To
date, 21 B-2s have been produced, but
one crashed in Guam in 2008, making it
the most expensive loss of aviation

1. F-22 Raptor

True to its nickname, the F-22 is a
fearsome beast. The lethal combination
of stealth, speed, maneuverability, and a
multitude of other classified bells and
whistles makes the Raptor one of the
baddest birds on the planet. A USAF
pilot with F-22 combat experience put it
this way: “Imagine you’re a sniper at
night with night-vision goggles and a
high-powered rifle and the guy you’re up
against has no goggles and a pistol.

That’s what it’s like flying the F-22.”
The world’s first fifth-generation fighter
jet is a joint project by Lockheed Martin
and Boeing and first entered service in
2005. Its primary role is to provide air
superiority, but it can also serve various
other functions, including ground attack,
electronic warfare and signal
intelligence. After waiting nine long years
in the nest, the Raptor saw its first
action ion 2014, going after ISIS targets
in Northern Syria.

Although the Raptor is capable of
reaching a max speed of Mach 2.25
(1726 mph), one of its defining
characteristics is the ability to cruise at
Mach 1.5 without afterburners. And like
the B-2, the F-22 is almost invisible to
radars — or in pilot jargon, enjoys “low
observability.” In short, it can fly faster
and longer because it burns less fuel,
and is more or less undetectable. Also,
federal law prevents the F-22 from being
exported to other allies and NATO
countries in order to protect its
confidential, hush-hush, stealth

Being on top, however, means there are
plenty of others out there that want to
knock the Raptor off its lofty perch. To
name a few: Sukhoi Su-57 (Russia) ,
Eurofighter Typhoon (European Union),
Dassault Rafale (France) and the Chengdu
J-20 (China) . Good luck.


0 Like

6. Birds of Prey

Birds of prey may be top predators, but
they rather ironically fall prey to
traffickers thanks to their exceptional
hunting ability. Being a status symbol in
some cultures, falcons, eagles and other
impressive meat-eating birds are
poached by collectors and those wanting
to keep birds for falconry outside of the
normal process for legally acquiring a
hunting bird. The International
Association for Falconry & Conservation
of Birds of Prey identifies poaching of
rare species, such as the crisis level
plundering of Bonelli’s Eagles in southern
Europe by criminal organization
members as key threats to raptor
conservation worldwide. In just the case
of the Bonelli’s Eagle, criminals are
putting this species at risk of extinction
just by poaching the birds in their nests.

Furthermore, given the prestigious
following of falconry and the work and
dedication of legitimate falconers, the
illegal side of working with raptors is
feared as a rogue element capable of
giving an undeserved bad name to
falconry. As a result of the short term
gain available to the poachers who try all
types of methods of snaring and seizing
young and adult birds of prey,
population declines and disturbance and
destruction of nesting sites has become a
growing threat that makes birds of prey
among the most aggressively poached
types of wildlife on the planet.

5. Hawksbill Turtles

Thinking about getting a sea turtle shell
as a souvenir? Or even just a small piece
of jewelry fashioned from the remains of
an unfortunate sea reptile? Think again.
Sea turtles are enigmatic and
charismatic, and that makes them an
unfortunate target of poachers on the
high seas and beaches alike. The rare
Hawksbill Turtle, heavily trafficked for
the ornamental uses of its carapace, is
one example of the sea turtle plundering
problem described by the brilliantly
named organization “Too Rare to Wear” ,
which also offers website visitors a
button to report turtle shell products.
Hawksbill Turtles have seen their global
population fall by around 85 percent in
the last 100 years, affected not
only through bycatch but also as a result
of persistent poaching activity.

Furthermore, the sea turtles have a
pattern of turning up in remote areas
where they are easily taken by poachers,
vulnerable by being too far away from
the watchful eye of conservation
authorities. The Hawksbill Turtles are
fully protected from being harvested in
the majority of countries, yet poachers
brazenly go afoul of the law due to the
demand for turtle products and prices
that can be fetched by a good shell,
often merely made into tourist trinkets.
Red listed as critically endangered,
Hawksbills need your help and the best
way is to refuse to partake in the
carnage by voting with your dollar when
offered trinkets or other sea turtle
products for sale.

4. Sharks

Move over, Jaws propaganda. Sharks are
in far more trouble from humans than
humans are from sharks, and we can
thank the truly terrifying shark
traffickers for the crisis. Sharks of
several species, preyed upon for their
fins (used in soup), are being killed in
extraordinary numbers, their body parts
trafficked around the globe for
unnecessary culinary use. Close to 73
million sharks end up being slaughtered
for their fins yearly in a gruesome and
abusive practice that involves cutting the
fins of live sharks, which are then cruelly
thrown back to die minus their fins, also
wasting the meat.

Canada is partially to blame to date in
the global crisis, despite a ban on shark
finning in Canadian waters, as the largest
importer of shark fins outside of Asia,
where demand is especially high for
shark fin soup. Canadian environmental
legislators have failed to ban the
importation of shark fins previously,
though as of 2019 efforts are underway
to enact a ban through the House of
Commons. Filmmaker Rod Stewart
produced the documentary Sharkwater in
2007, followed by Sharkwater Extinction
in 2018 to highlight the plight of sharks
and the need for stricter regulations to
stop both trafficking and trade permitted
through legal loopholes. In 2017,
170,000 kilograms of shark fins were
imported into Canada, representing a 60
percent increase from 2012. A petition
is available to request a Canadian ban on
shark fin importation.

3. Rhinoceroses

Save the Rhino International is just one
of the organizations and initiatives
centered around combatting the illegal
trade in the horns of critically
endangered rhinoceros species. Real life
unicorns, rhinoceroses are huge
ungulates that rank as some of the
largest megafauna on the planet. They
are also among the most wanted, given
that all rhinoceros are critically
endangered except for one species of
White Rhinoceros, the Southern White
Rhinoceros. While banned internationally
under CITES, the international rhino horn
trade poses a massive threat to rhinos
that continues anyways thanks to the
demand for rhinoceros horn based
elixirs and supposed medicines. Jewelry
is made from rhino horn, while the
“elixir” made from rhino horn often
becomes a symbol of power and social
standing , driving poaching.
Growing levels of poaching have placed
rhinos as prime targets among the
world’s most heavily trafficked animals.
In just two years, South Africa saw 1,000
rhinos poached, from 2017 to 2019.

Conservationists have enacted some
rather drastic measures, comes with its
share of controversy. Poison has been
placed in the horns of living rhinos by
the Rhino Rescue Project, contaminating
the horns but not the rhinos, making
them unmarketable as the goal. Other
measures enacted have included cutting
off the horns on living rhinos to
dissuade poachers from making a kill.

2. Tigers

Tigers, trafficked for their fur and bones,
are the world’s greatest cats. Although
lions have been hailed as the “King of
Beasts” tigers are actually larger, holding
the world record for size. With their
extraordinary skin and various myths
about the medicinal properties endowed
by their bones and other body parts,
including blood and even unlikely parts
such as claws which are thought to
harbor special properties. Tragically,
superstition and the desire for the odd
aesthetic of a tiger skin has driven wild
tiger numbers down to an all-time low of
around 3,000 wild tigers.
Their dwindling numbers are spread out
across countries as diverse as Russia,
India and Malaysia, while also
represented in China, Nepal and
Bangladesh among other Asian countries.

Organized criminal gangs are frequently
interrupted trafficking the parts of
butchered tigers and their skins into
Asian markets, where the demand for
tiger wine, made from bones and their
skin or even just charms made from tiger
claws presents sufficient return for their
effort, coupled with penalties that are
insufficient and light enforcement in
many areas. To combat the highly
lucrative trade, conservation initiatives
such as Traffic , which established
International Tiger Day on July 29, rely
on education to reduce demand. Higher
tech routes have been taken, including
working with the Indian government to
create Tigernet, which assists in tracking
and apprehending poachers. The Wildlife
Protection Society of India set up a
system for informants to turn in
poachers for a cash reward and also
hires traveling informants.

1. Pangolins

Some creatures seem to exist just to defy
our attempts to classify them. Pangolins
are warm blooded, bonafide mammals
related to normal mammals like mice and
tigers, but bearing the likeness of a
scaled dragon or other mythical reptile.

Pangolins make up eight species: four
African in origin and four Asian species.
Pangolins, related to the carnivores most
closely among their mammal relatives,
boast the distinction of being the world’s
only scaled mammals but also hold the
dubious distinction of being the world’s
most trafficked animals. Shockingly, this
one rare and endangered type of animal
accounts for a staggering trafficking
count of approximately 100,000 animals
per year , according to WildAid, a
conservation organization heroically
working to curb the slaughter, creating
awareness through celebrity support,
assisted by renowned Asian celebrities
Jackie Chan and Angelababy.

The International Union for Conservation
of Nature has designated all species as
critically endangered, while international
bans on any cross-border transport have
been enacted as of 2016. Nevertheless,
poaching persists, keeping pangolins in
their unfortunate most trafficked spot.

Pangolins are used as traditional
medicine at unsustainable levels, have
taken hold as a popular food item,
especially in Southeast Asia and are taken
from the wild as exotic pets and used to
make exotic jewelry, garments and
ornamentation, thanks to their scales.

The trade in pangolin products goes back
a long time, for even King George III
received pangolin armor. In addition to
the massive quantities of pangolins
trafficked, over 100 trafficking routes
have been documented.


0 Like

George H. W. Bush received a Komodo dragon as a gift.

About halfway through his four-year term, the
then-President Bush Sr. was gifted a male
Komodo dragon by the name of Naga from the
Indonesian government.

Despite the temptation to let him run amok in
the Oval Office, Bush Sr. decided to donate
him to the Cincinnati Zoo.

Naga lived until the ripe age of 24, and sired
over 32 little baby Komodo dragons. He was
one of Cincinnati Zoo’s top attractions getting
a million visitors a year – and he even went on
tour as a conservation officer in 1995!

Female Komodo dragons can reproduce sexually and a-sexually.

In 2006, a female Komodo dragon called Flora
in London’s Chester Zoo laid 25 eggs – 11 of
which were viable for hatching – after living in
captivity alone and never coming into contact
with a male Komodo dragon.

This is because of something called
“parthenogenesis” and it works something like
this: with no males around, and in lieu of
sperm, certain egg cells fertilize each other
meaning an embryo is created and Komodo
dragons can experience “virgin births”.

Komodo dragons are actually quite speedy.

Despite being huge beasts weighing up to 198
lbs and 10ft in length, Komodo dragons can
run at speeds up to 13 mph (20 km/h) when

This is something they use quite often when
hunting in the wild. They will stalk up to their
prey slowly, or lie in wait for passing animals,
then burst forward at them in a sharp sprint.

All it takes is one bite from the Komodo
dragon and it can wait for its prey to succumb
to the venom.

Then all that’s left is for the Komodo dragon
to use its incredible sense of smell to track
down the carcass – albeit before other Komodo
dragons get to it!

Komodo dragons have only killed 4
people since the 1970’s.

Despite their bad rep as vicious man-eating
beasts, Komodo dragons are responsible for
hardly any fatalities at all. Mortal encounters
were documented in 1974, 2000, 2007 and

The last Komodo dragon fatality occurred in
2009 when a man fell from an apple tree and
was passed out below it. Two Komodo dragons
mauled the unconscious man before people
nearby intervened. Although the man was
rushed to hospital, he later died from his
However it is no myth that Komodo dragons
will dig up and eat buried human bodies.

Therefore the natives who share their lands
with the Komodo dragons tend to pile rocks
over the burial sites of loved ones to deter
hungry grave-robbing dragons.

Still though, you’re more likely to die from a
risky selfie, choking on a peanut, or drowning
in the bath than you are from a Komodo
dragon attack!

Komodo dragons like to play.

Whilst they may be very fearsome to look at,
these apex predators have been known to be
very playful in captivity. Captive specimens
have been seen playing with everyday objects
like shoes and shovels, or toys like Frisbees and

A study was conducted on a captive Komodo
dragon called Kraken at the Smithsonian
National Zoological Park after it started acting
weird towards zoo workers. She was observed
tugging at shoe laces with her teeth, or gently
pulling objects out of peoples’ pockets.

The zoo keepers decided to introduce items
into her enclosure, like boxes, blankets, shoes
and Frisbees – she also liked to play tug of war
with her keepers!

The behavior observed in Kraken was
interpreted as play due to the way in she
showed no aggression and didn’t do it for a
food reward.

She was also able to learn commands, such as
walking to a keeper when whistled, and
understanding it was food time when she saw a
keeper wearing bright colored gloves.

So there you have it, the top ten facts about
Komodo dragons. Not only are they very
intelligent apex predators, but they’re also
fun-loving lizards!

Hope you’ve enjoyed this one; let us know what
your favorite fact was down in the comments!


0 Like

5. Franz Joseph I: 67 years, 355 days (Austrian Empire)

As we mentioned, the weight of the
crown can be a burdensome curse. To
wit: Franz Joseph , who in the span of
nearly 68 years endured several
assassination attempts, the murder of his
wife, the suicide of his son, the
execution of his brother, and the
assassination of his nephew Franz
Ferdinand — an event that would
ultimately spark World War I .

Franz Josef was an old school member of
the House of Hapsburg, who became
Emperor of Austria in 1848. He also held
a slew of other royal titles within the
Austro-Hungarian Empire, including
service as the Grand Prince of
Transylvania — an appointment that
undoubtedly made him a revered Goth

Despite witnessing the decay of the
Hapsburg dynasty and experiencing
innumerable personal losses, he enjoyed
widespread popularity throughout his
kingdom before dying of natural causes
in 1916.

4. Johann II: 70 years, 91 days (Liechtenstein)

The tiny, landlocked principality of
Liechtenstein can be challenging to find
on most maps. At 62 square miles, the
German-speaking, alpine European
nation is roughly a third the size of
Albuquerque, New Mexico. However,
Liechtenstein boasts one of the highest
GDP rates per person in the world — and
owes much of its success to a man
simply known as Johann der Gute (“John
the Good”).

Johann II took charge in 1858 after
turning 18. Six years later, he oversaw
Liechtenstein’s first constitution, and
later further solidified its autonomy by
withdrawing from the powerful German
Confederation. In another bold move,
Johann abolished the country’s army and
instead focused on building a strong
financial sector that would emerge as a
renowned tax haven.

During his long tenure, he generously
supported the arts and sciences, but
wasn’t exactly a people person and
avoided social events and public
appearances. Unlike other royals who
took advantage of their elevated
standing, the prince never married or
sired any regal offspring, and ruled until
his death at the age of 88 in 1929.

3. Bhumibol Adulyadej: 70 Years, 126 days (Thailand)

Serving as King for seven decades not
only illustrates a steady work history but
is usually the most impressive
achievement on a person’s resume. Not
for Bhumibol Adulyadej (pronounced just
as it looks: poo-mee-pon ah-dun-yaa-
det). In addition to his well-worn crown,
Thailand’s longest-serving ruler and the
ninth Rama of the Chakri Dynasty, led a
truly remarkable life as an accomplished
musician, painter, sailor, author, and
inventor. He also managed to quell
numerous domestic uprisings as well as
deftly avoid conflicts in neighboring war-
torn Southeast Asia. In short, the man
stayed busy.

As the youngest son of Harvard-educated
Prince Mahidol, Bhumibol was born in
Cambridge, Massachusetts on December
5, 1927 (and the only monarch ever
born on U.S. soil). He became ruler in
1946 after his brother, King Rama VIII,
died of a gunshot wound in mysterious

For the next 70 years, Bhumibol stayed
on the job and earned a reputation
characterized as both Machiavellian and
Buddha-esque — and in his spare time
famously jammed with jazz legends
Benny Goodman , Stan Getz, and Lionel
Hampton. Top that, Daddy-O.

2. Louis XIV: 72 Years, 110 days (France)

For any aspiring monarch wanting to
leave his or her mark on the world, King
Louis XIV would be a damn good role
model. His impressive, decadence-
dripping, 72-year reign defined absolute
power and established France as both an
economic and military world power.

Furthermore, the “Le Roi Soleil” (“The
Sun King”), dressed like a rock star, built
the ultimate crib at Versailles and
compiled a massive fortune, setting the
standard by which all other crowned
heads are measured.

Hailing from the House of Bourbon
(once again, tres rock star), Louis XIV
ascended to the throne via the time
honored custom of the divine right of
kings — a system that actually worked
quite well back in the day. Among his
many accomplishments and vast
patronage to the arts, his greatest
achievement involved the absolute
empowerment of a single entity: himself.

True to his impressive sobriquet, all
facets of French life revolved around the
King. His heavy-handed governance
allowed him to maintain control through
an unquestioned code that kept
competing figureheads in the church,
aristocracy, and military all at bay.
Whether apocryphal or not, his well-
known quote “L’état, c’est moi” (”I am
the state”) was a drop- the-mic decree
for the ages. Or to put it another way, if
the gilded, sequined shoe fits, wear it.

1. Sobhuza II: 82 Years, 254 days (Swaziland)

While most octogenarians are fortunate
to have merely lived this long, King
Sobhuza II spent nearly his entire eight
decades sitting firmly on the throne. At a
staggering 82 years, his reign makes him
the longest-ruling monarch ever.

Congratulations, noble majesty.

Sobhuza was born on July 22, 1899, in
southern Africa. He inherited the crown
at the tender age of 4 months old after
his father, King Ngwane V, died while
performing a celebratory dancing ritual
called the Incwala (Caution: do NOT try
this at home). Afterward, according to a
New York Times report, “a tribal council
headed by his father’s favorite wife
chose the young Sobhuza as his
successor from among a host of other

The African King spent his childhood
studying abroad in England, receiving a
formal education before retiring home.

Although Swaziland (now eSwatini)
remained under British rule before
gaining its independence in 1968,
Sobhuza ruled as the de facto leader of
his people and helped usher in a post-
colonial era of prosperity. Also, for the
record, he had a total 70 wives and
fathered 210 children. Hail to the King.


0 Like

21. If you were to take a journey to the Sun in a
normal airliner flying at its regular speed
(about 644km/h), it would take you 20 years to
get there without stopping!

22. There is only a 10 kilometre difference in the
Sun’s polar diameter when compared with its
equatorial diameter. This means it is almost a
perfect sphere, but it is not the most spherical
planet in our Solar System however, as that
title belongs to Venus.

23. Unlike the Earth, which makes a rotation once
every 24 hours, the Sun rotates on its axis
once every 25 days. Well, once every 25 days
at its equator, and once every 36 days at its
poles. This is because the Sun’s rotation rate
decreases with increasing latitude, when
combined with the tilt of the Sun’s axis, it
means that the rotation of the poles happens
at a slower speed than the rotation of the
equator. Think of if you put a pencil through
an apple at an angle so it protruded out of the
top and bottom of the apple. Now if you
turned the apple, the middle of the apple
would make a full rotation quicker than the
pieces of pencil sticking out at an angle.

24. The Sun is 24,000 – 26,000 light years away
from the galactic centre, and it takes the Sun
225 – 250 million years to complete an orbit
of the Milky Way’s centre.

25. While completing this orbit the Sun travels at
136.7 miles per second.

26. Energy within the Sun’s core is generated
through nuclear fusion, as Hydrogen converts
to Helium. The energy output of the Sun is
roughly 386 billion Megawatts.

27. Due to the fact that Helium is lighter than
Hydrogen, every time Hydrogen nuclei fuse
together to create Helium nuclei within the
Sun’s core, it loses a small amount of its mass.

28. During the nuclear fusion process that takes
place within the Sun, the core can reach
staggering temperatures of 150 million degrees

29. The surface of the Sun is approximately 5,500
degrees Celsius, although this seems chilly in
comparison to the core’s temperature.

30. As the Sun creates energy within its core, the
heat from this causes expansion. If not for its
enormous gravitational force, the Sun would
explode like a giant bomb.

31. The Sun has an incredibly powerful magnetic
field, and due to this it has many magnetic
storms. During these magnetic storms solar
flares occur, and we can see them when
looking at photos of the Sun, where they show
as (comparably) dark spots on its surface.
These are called Sunspots, and in Sunspots the
magnetic lines in the storms are twisted and
they spin, similar to a tornado on Earth.

32. The number of Sunspots appearing on the Sun
varies significantly, with a peak number of
Sunspots being visible about every 11 years.
This means that the Sun has a cycle of
behaviour which repeats itself every 11 years.

33. The Sun sometimes generates something called
solar winds, which are streams of charged
particles like protons and electrons that travel
through the Solar System at roughly 450
kilometres per second.

34. These solar winds are created when when the
particle stream builds up enough kinetic
energy to escape the Sun’s intense centre of
gravity and the Sun’s corona.

35. Solar winds can be responsible for several
different inconveniences experienced by
mankind such as radio interference, as well as
the way they often alter the trajectory of

36. Solar winds also create some of space’s more
beautiful phenomenons such as the dazzling
tails of comets and the Aurora Borealis, or The
Northern Lights.

37. Planets like the Earth that have strong
magnetic fields tend to deflect most of the
charged particles that make up solar winds as
they approach the planet.

38. Over mankind’s history the Sun has played a
huge influence in many ancient religions. Often
viewed as the giver of life, many early cultures
saw the Sun as a deity. The Egyptians had a Sun
God named Ra, and the Aztecs also had a Sun
God called Tonatiuh.

39. Many centuries ago astrologers believed that
the Earth was the centre of the our Universe,
with the Sun as a planet orbiting it. They
thought that the Moon was the closest planet,
then either Mercury, Venus or the Sun as the
next-closest planet, with Jupiter and Saturn
orbiting the Earth the furthest away.

40. If the Sun’s bright surface was removed, we
would only see darkness. Although the Sun’s
outer surface glows bright enough to burn
your retinas, the Sun’s core is pitch black.


0 Like

5. Wrist watches

The first wrist watches were initially
treated as a laughable joke item of their
day. In 1916, the New York Times led
the charge of sensible, pocket watch-
using Americans scoffing at the wacky
European dandies who had started
wearing bracelets with clocks on them.
Vaudeville artists and early movie actors
utilized wrist watches as comedy props,
and the whole thing was treated as a fad.

However, when the great war rolled
around, wrist watches soon stopped
being a laughing matter. Telephones and
signal devices required users who knew
what time it is, and the only practical
way a soldier could wear a timepiece
that they could check at a quick glance
was … on the wrist. The joke item was
suddenly deathly serious, and European
troops were fitting their watches with
unbreakable glass and radium displays
for night-time use. The practical benefits
of the wrist watch were now too obvious
to ignore, and civilians started to use
them as well.

4. The (electric) computer

While it’s true that the computer was
technically invented by Charles Babbage ,
a 19th century mathematician who built
a crude mechanical calculator called the
“Difference Engine,” the era of the
electric computer didn’t kick off until
1944, when Great Britain’s codebreakers
unleashed the Colossus to crack Nazi
messages during World War II. Instead of
the famous Enigma code , the Colossus
focused on the less known but even
more important “Fish” transmissions that
were based on electric teleprinter

Fish messages were largely reliant on a
cipher machine called “Tunny,” which
used binary code in its encryption.
Although Alan Turing figured out a
method to crack Tunny’s cipher in 1942,
British codebreakers found it too slow to
keep up with the constant tsunami of
encrypted messages. All of this changed
in 1944, when a Post Office truck
delivered Colossus I to their Bletchley
Park headquarters. The giant machine
and its eight subsequent Mark II siblings
were the first true electric computers
that used a clock pulse to synchronize
processing steps, and proceeded to crack
Tunny codes so swiftly and efficiently
that they were able to help provide
crucial information for the Allies’ D-Day
preparations and subsequent push
toward Berlin.

After the war, parts of the Colossus
computers were transferred to the
University of Manchester, where they
served as a basis for their successor:
“Baby,” the ancestor of modern all-
purpose computers.

3. The microwave oven

Really? Microwave ovens? What use do
the military have for those? Do soldiers
carry tiny ones in their backpacks?
Wouldn’t they need a pretty long
extension cord?

Not quite. Still, the microwave oven
definitely wouldn’t exist if it wasn’t for
the military. In 1946, an engineer named
Percy Spencer was developing a new way
to mass-produce radar magnetrons. He
was busy testing a military-grade
magnetron, when suddenly, he noticed
that a peanut cluster bar he had in his
pocket had turned unexpectedly melty
because of the microwaves the device
emitted. Fascinated by this unexpected
development, Spencer tested the
magnetron on an egg, which promptly
exploded on his face. After that, he
moved on to popcorn kernels, and ended
up inventing microwave popcorn.

While Spencer himself wasn’t particularly
concerned about the potential danger
microwaves posed on him during his
tests, and the very first commercial
microwave oven debuted just one year
after the initial discovery, microwaves
were still enough of an unknown
commodity for the device to catch on (it
didn’t help that it weighed around 750
pounds and cost $2,000). In the end, it
took until 1967 and the emergence of
the compact Radarange oven for the
technology to make its commercial

2. The Internet (ARPANET was a military project)

Yes, even the wild world wide web you’re
browsing this list on right now is a
military invention — or rather, its
predecessor ARPANET is. ARPANET is
largely the product of the US defense
department’s well-financed research
agency called the Advanced Research
Projects Agency (As in, ARPA — get it?).
The ARPANET network was built in 1969
to connect the mainframes of various
universities, defense contractors and
government institutions throughout the
country, and its ultimate aim was to
“bring computing to front lines.”

ARPANET never quite achieved this,
because while it was quite effective, its
locations were completely fixed, and the
computers required to operate it were
massive. However, the existence of the
system left ARPA scientists plenty of
room to tinker, and in 1974 two
researchers named Robert Kahn and Vint
Cerf sowed the seeds of internet proper
by creating the blueprint of the first
internet protocol. Only two years later,
the seemingly impossible internet started

Fun fact: ARPA later changed its name to
Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency, or DARPA. Yes, the same DARPA
that has been in the focus of assorted
conspiracy theories for, among other
things, its involvement in the supposed
weather control program HAARP.

1. Duct tape

Duct tape , if anything, seems like a
military invention. It can fix pretty much
anything you can name, and seems
custom made for use in the field.

However, military scientists had
absolutely nothing to do with its original
concept. The idea came in 1943 from an
ammunition packer named Vesta Stoudt,
whose two sons were serving in the US
Navy and who was quite keen on keeping
them alive. When she noticed that the
ammo packages were sealed with thin
paper tape and opened with a tab that
frequently tore off, which left soldiers
scrambling to open the packages,
potentially at the cost of their lives.

Stoudt brought her concerns to her
superiors and offered a solution — a
strong, cloth-based waterproof tape that
would efficiently seal the boxes shut —
but they weren’t listening to her. So she
took matters into her own hands, and
wrote a letter to President Franklin D.

Roosevelt himself. In her letter, she
described the issue and offered her tape
idea as the solution, complete with
diagrams. Roosevelt was so impressed
with Stoudt that he immediately passed
the letter on to the War Production
Board, and soon, Stoudt was showered
with letters from political and military
big shots who kept her in the loop about
the developments and asked her to send
them any other ideas she might have in
the future. The tape was approved for
production with “exceptional merit,” and
the military immediately fell in love with
it. They dubbed the new invention “the
100-mile-per-hour tape,” and use it to
this day to fix everything from boots to
Jeeps. It’s probably fair to say that the
public quite likes the tape, as well.


0 Like

The Sun makes a full rotation once every 25 – 35 days.

So for us on Earth, one full rotation equals one
full day. However, our gargantuan sun takes 25
– 35 Earth days to make one full rotation!

Earth is the only planet not named after a god.

Nobody knows how the Earth got its name; all
we know is that it is derived from an
amalgamation of both the Old English and Old
Germanic words for “ground”.

Due to the Sun and Moon’s gravitational pull, we have tides.

This is because the Moon’s tidal force causes
the Earth – and the water on it – to bulge out
on the side closest to the Moon.

These bulges are what cause the world’s high tides.

Pluto is smaller than the United States.

If you were to walk around the equator of
Pluto it would be the same distance as walking
from London to Denver (well, give or take 56 miles).

According to mathematics, white holes are possible, although as of yet we have found none.

A white hole is a hypothetical region of space-
time which can’t be entered from the outside,
although matter and light can escape from

Basically, it’s the reverse of a black hole.

Source/Credit: www.thefactsite.com

0 Like

0 Like

[ @Seuncoded: ] How on earth will someone be eating sand, when the person is not kids

I do not even wanna see my kids eating sand. If I see my kid eating sand, I can gift you that kid :mrgreen:

But I am sure this boy used to eat sand @iamseun In fact, something tells me he used to eat sand even after he was ten years old :mrgreen:

and this girl too @Temitayo

And even you... Or you want to lie?

0 Like

10. Eating/Drinking Sugar

You can be legitimately addicted to, and
experience withdraws from, sugar. Refined
sugar/ cane sugar is actually really bad for
you (though corn syrup is arguably worse),
but unfortunately for most of us, it’s also in
just about everything that’s processed. Most
people addicted to sugar don’t even realize it
because it’s such a common part of our diets.
Your brain processes sugar as a reward, which
leads to addiction and cravings. You CAN re-
train your taste buds by cutting out all sugar
for several weeks (including natural sugar),
but it’s a rough few weeks because the
withdraws are no joke; Anxiety, depression,
irritability, cravings, headaches, tiredness,
and muscle aches are all common sugar
withdraw symptoms.

9. Eating Chalk

Eating chalk is a weirdly common form of
pica, for both children and adults. While chalk
is labeled non-toxic, during manufacturing it
can be contaminated with everything from rat
poop and bugs to metal shavings, as well as
chemicals used during the manufacturing process.

8. Bodybuilding

Bodybuilding addiction is considered a
separate addiction from exercise, though it
still very much is based around being in
control, or seeking the “perfect” body or
physique, much like those addicted to plastic
surgery. It’s called muscular dysmorphia, or
bigorexia, and like any addiction, it can take
over someone’s life and cost them money,
relationships, and even their health.

7. Listening to Heavy Metal Music

In Sweden, a man named Roger Tullgren
became so addicted to Heavy Metal, and it
took over so much of his life, that it actually
qualified as a disability. He now receives
unemployment benefits from the government
as he’s only able to work part time. No word
on if the checks stop when he goes deaf from the loud music.

6. Getting Plastic Surgery

Often caused by body dysmorphic disorder,
addiction to plastic surgery is where someone
is obsessed with an imperfection – be it real
or imagined – and this starts a cascade of
surgeries seeking to be “perfect.” Society also
plays a role, glorifying plastic surgery, and
many film stars make plastic surgery seem
more “normal” than it is. Although lots of
people like to mock those who go overboard
with plastic surgery, after a certain point, it’s
just sad.

5. Using Over-the-Counter Nasal Spray

Some people over-use over the counter nasal
spray, such as Flonase, or even just plain salt
water. What most people use to clear out
nasal passages or help control allergies,
people addicted will use them several times a
day; however, sometimes this actually makes
their congestion issues worse.

4. Eating Ashes

Specifically, cigarette ashes, though there have
been instances of people eating the ashes of
loved ones who have been cremated. This
form of pica can possibly stem from a
nutritional deficiency such as anemia and can
cause illnesses from the toxins in the ashes,
as well as general gastrointestinal issues.

3. Eating Paint Chips

Mostly seen among small children, addiction
to eating paint chips is a real thing. This can
be very serious due to lead-based paints in
older homes, and even if it’s not lead based,
eating paint is pretty darn terrible for you.
Other forms of this seen in adults are people
who drink paint pens and nail polish.

2. Working

While a good work ethic is healthy and
honorable, some people become obsessive
about work and lose any sort of work/life
balance. We all know someone who can’t
“leave work at work”, but some become
addicted to work and spend more time than
necessary there because it gives them a sense
of fulfillment. This is often to the determent
of other parts of their lives, such as their
personal relationships as they start to
experience emotional disconnection. Before it
becomes an addiction, remember that the
grass is always greener where you water it.

1. Being on Social Media

It’s not entirely your fault, social media is
literally designed to be as addictive as crack.
You’re supposed to basically live on SM, and
well, a lot of people do. People literally have
emotional and psychological distress trying to
quit Facebook, and some people can’t. This is
a bit of a problem, considering people seem
to zero in on social media and sometimes
ditch reality, and also considering that it’s
well known that Facebook is experimenting on
you and gathering all your data for the
highest bidder. Social Media addiction can
become a big problem in someone’s life,
affecting both their personal relationships and
their job. If you think you’re spending too
much time on social media, experts say the
best advice is limit visits to social media to
once per day.


0 Like

20. Pulling Hair

Compulsive hair pulling, or trichotillomania
(often shortened to trich) is an impulse
control disorder, where people have an
overwhelming urge to pull out their hair –
from their head, eyelashes, eyebrows, beard,
arms, anywhere. People who have this
condition experience high levels of anxiety
until they pull out some hair. Sometimes
people who have Trichotillomania also chew or eat their hair.

19. Receiving Coffee Enemas

Coffee Enemas are something people can, and
do, become addicted to. This can stem from a
caffeine addiction as taking it in through your
bottom allows it to be absorbed into your
body more quickly (which is also why some
people stick drugs up there, but those people
usually die), OR it could just be because they
like having enemas. The Florida couple, Mike
and Trina, who made their addiction known
nationwide in 2013, spend up to five hours a
day with their addiction and don’t even drink
coffee. Trina had various gastrointestinal
health issues and claimed that coffee enemas
are what helped her; she hasn’t been to a
doctor since.

18. Playing Video Games

Yes, despite what your significant other says,
video game addiction is real, and it’s probably
not what they have if you’re still in a
relationship with them. Video game addiction
is usually characterized by compulsive game
playing, usually of online role playing games,
to the detriment of one’s personal and
professional life. Those addicted to gaming
often start to withdraw from reality and real
relationships, instead focusing on online
relationships and game achievements. People
who are addicted to video games are USUALLY
males under the age of 30, but not always.
People have died from this because they
simply refused to get up from their game and
eat or go to the bathroom.

17. Piercings

Yep, people can become addicted to all kinds
of body modifications, not just plastic
surgery. Tattoos also fall under this
classification. While there isn’t an official
name for this disorder, some people just can’t
help themselves and get every inch of their
body “modified,” and most cultures praise self
expression so much that we never question
their motivations, or if in SOME instances, it
may be unhealthy because it’s considered judgmental.

16. Eating Glass

Addiction to eating glass has an official
clinical name – hyalophagia. People addicted
to eating glass often admit to enjoying the
attention, but also often sustain serious
injuries, as you’d imagine.

15. Eating Dirt

Eating dirt is actually a form of something
called Pica Disorder. Pica involves people
eating non-food items. Eating dirt -geophagy –
is actually very normal for some cultures, but
if consumed in large amounts (or depending
on what’s in it), it can be very bad for you.

14. Eating Soap or Laundry Detergent

Eating soap is another form of pica disorder.
This is very bad for you. While regular bar
soap *probably* won’t kill you, it will
absolutely liquefy your bowels, and people
have died eating laundry detergent. That
doesn’t stop many people from eating it, as
it’s more common than most people think.

13. Thumb Sucking

Thumb sucking is a comfort measure often
used by children that can become an
addiction in adulthood. Aside from being
embarrassing, this can cause a lot of dental
problems, ugly calluses, as well as sickness
unless said thumb-sucker is very careful
about keeping their hands and under their nails clean.

12. Gambling Online

Addiction to gambling is pretty well known,
but ONLINE gambling, specifically, can be
very addicting. It can cause all the same
problems that a regular gambling addiction
does, financial ruin, families torn apart, but
from the relative comfort of your own home,
with your bank account and credit cards only
a click and screen away. Some experts even
argue that online gambling is even more
addicting than traditional, in-person gambling.

11. Unrequited Love

This is kind of hard to believe – maybe more
so than eating dirt – but people can become
addicted to the pain of romantic rejection.
This has actually been studied, and brain
scans have been done on people showing that
it’s similar to a cocaine craving. You know
that guy who makes the worst relationship
choices possible, or that couple who’s “madly
in love” but breaks up every other weekend?
They may just have a mental illness.

Continue reading below

0 Like

5. Divorce was not maligned in the Roman Empire

Whether chosen or arranged, a
contemporary marriage is considered a
personal event. For the Romans,
however, marriage was a civic duty. A
marriage could create mutually beneficial
sociocultural and sociopolitical
connections between families. As the
head of the family, a father had the
authority to promote a marriage that
would benefit his household. A divorce,
however, was considered a personal
matter between the members of a
couple, partially because breaking one
alliance to form another, more
desireable one was a socially accepted

Since wives were the property of their
husbands, no divorce required a division
of goods, though a man was required to
return a woman’s dowry to her family if
he divorced her. Men were permitted to
divorce their wives without citing a
reason, though common reasons
included adultery, infertility, consuming
wine excessively, and making copies of
the household keys. The Justinian Code
of 449 CE allowed women to divorce men
under certain circumstances. It was not
the first such law, but it was the first
that did not impose penalties on the
woman if her divorce was denied.

4. The Pax Romana lasted 200 years

In 27 BCE Augustus Caesar, nephew of
Julius Caesar, became the emperor of the
Roman Empire. His reign marked the
beginning of the Pax Romana, a Latin
phrase meaning “Roman peace.”
Augustus’ reforms provided the Pax
Romana’s stability. He decreased
imperial expansion (admittedly only after
gaining land in what are now Spain,
Switzerland, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Egypt
by defeating Mark Antony). He ordered
the building of roads and aqueducts ,
using concrete made from ash. He
decreased the size of the military. He
protected sea trade, ordering the navy to
capture pirates. He promoted the arts.
Horace, Virgil, Ovid, and Livy are all
writers whose careers flourished during
the Pax Romana.

Though Augustus’ rule, exemplifies the
best of the Pax Romana, it outlasted his
reign. Incompetent emperors and
invasions from Germanic tribes
combined to end the Pax Romana in 180 CE.

3. Scholars disagree about why the Roman Empire fell

More accurately, no one can isolate the
single most significant factor that led to
the Western Roman Empire’s collapse in
476 CE. The Eastern Roman Empire, also
called the Byzantine Empire, lasted until
the 1400s, when it was conquered by the
Ottoman Empire. The division of the
Roman Empire into two halves was one
factor in its decline. Both halves did not
thrive equally, and each half developed
distinct sociocultural values.

Other factors: The empire was too large
to rule uniformly, and it was vulnerable
to invaders, particularly Huns and
Germanic tribes. After the third century,
some of the Western Roman Empire’s
emperors weren’t of Roman descent, and
that threatened civic unity. Increasing
reliance on mercenaries led to military
defeats, and a lack of successful
conquests decreased the availability of
the slave labor on which the farmers
depended. Historian Guy Halsell writes,
“The Roman Empire was not murdered
[…] nor did it die a natural death. It
accidentally committed suicide.”

2. English words are inspired by Roman culture

Latin words are still used in the medical
and legal professions. However, some
English words also come from Roman
culture. The Senate was the Romans’
term for their lawmaking body, and a
senator was a person who served there.
Auditorium is Latin for, “a place for
listening.” For the Romans, a circus was
any place of entertainment designed in a
circle, racetracks included. “Civilized”
comes from the Romans’ “civitas”
meaning “citizen.”

The Romans contributed the words
“emperor” and “gladiator” to the English
language. In military academies, a first
year cadet is called a “plebe.” This is a
shortened form of “plebeian,” the
Romans’ term for a lower class citizen.

1. The Romans influenced contemporary governments

Any democracy owes a debt to the
Greeks. The concept of democracy, a
political system wherein each person
receives one vote when legislative
governmental matters are being
determined, originated in Athens. In
Athens, as in any other place democracy
is instituted, how personhood was
defined determined who actually had the
right to vote. The word “democracy”
comes from two Greek words,
“demos” (people) and “kratos” (power).
However, the structure of a
contemporary democracy, or any form
of government that includes an elected
lawmaking body, owes a debt to the
Romans. Contemporary democracies are
representative democracies.

Like the Romans, voters elect officials,
who then vote on policies on behalf of
their constituents. The Patrician and
Plebeian Consuls were comprised of
citizenry from both of the Roman
Empire’s social classes. The Senate
functioned more like a parliament in a
constutional monarchy, insofar as the
extent of its powers was largely
determined by the ruling emperor.

However, members of the Roman Senate
were appointed. The Roman Empire’s
government was primarily authoritarian,
since the emperor created and enforced
policy. However, the governmental
structures the Romans modeled have
inspired other types of governments.


0 Like

The highest mountain discovered is the Olympus Mons, which is located on Mars.
See 1st picture below

Its peak is 16 miles (25 km) high, making it
nearly 3 times higher than Mount Everest.

And not only is it tall, but it’s also 374,015 ft²
(114,000 m²) wide – that’s an area the size of

The Whirlpool Galaxy (M51) was the first celestial object identified as being spiral.
See 2nd picture below

The grand, spiraling arms of the Whirlpool Galaxy are made up of long lanes of stars and gas, sprinkled with lots of space dust.

These arms act as star formation factories,
compressing hydrogen gas and creating
clusters of new stars.

A light-year is the distance covered by light in a single year.
See 3rd picture below

Light moves at the velocity of about 186,411
miles (300,000 km) a second.
So one light-year equates to roughly
5,903,026,326,255 miles!

The Milky Way galaxy is 105,700
light-years wide.

See 4th picture below

It would take a modern spacecraft
450,000,000 years to travel to the center of
our galaxy!

You can read more unbelievable space facts
with this list of Milky Way facts!

The Sun weighs about 330,000 times more than Earth.
See 5th picture below

It is about 109 times the diameter of Earth and
is so large the Earth could fit inside the sun
about 1,300,000 times over!

In fact, the sun is so gigantic that it contains
99.85% of all mass in our solar system.


0 Like

3. Turritopsis Dohrnii (Jellyfish)
See 1st picture below

Imagine that we could decide on a whim to
reverse our aging at any point in our lives.
Our hair would get less gray, our wrinkles
would disappear, our bodies would get
stronger, and our metabolism would
increase. We’d be like teenagers again and
then like children and, finally, like babies.

Then we’d start aging again from the
beginning, living our lives a second time
none the worse for wear. This is the exact
situation of the Turritopsis dohrnii, the
immortal jellyfish. At any point in its life, the
jellyfish can reverse aging in a process
known as transdifferentiation, revert to its
earliest form, and then continue living from
there. So far as we know, this process can
continue without end.

This mechanism can be triggered by anything
from mutilation to old age, starvation, or
disease. If left to their own devices, these
jellyfish will rejuvenate about 10 times over
the course of two years.

Sometimes, these events happen less than a
month apart. Also a proficient hitchhiker,
this everlasting jellyfish has spread to every
ocean in the world by hitching rides on
cargo boats.

2. Bristlecone Pine Trees
See 2nd picture below

These gnarly and knotted trees look anything
but ageless. Their lifetime seems evident in
their shape, with branches twisting in and
around on themselves like the bony fingers
of an old man.

Inside, though, is a life-form of incredible
sturdiness. The bristlecone pine measures its
life not in centuries but in millennia. The
oldest one discovered is estimated to be over
5,000 years old.

The exact location of this tree and other
exceptionally old bristlecone pines is kept a
secret to keep them safe from intentional or
accidental damage. Dated to be just under
5,000 years old, another bristlecone pine
named Prometheus was cut down in the
same area.

This pine’s wood is dense and resinous,
giving it natural defenses against threats like
fungi and insects. Even if the tree does die,
its dead form holds on strong for centuries
and is kept upright by its roots.

1. Pando Tree Colony
See 3rd picture below

Its name means “I spread” in Latin, and it’s
also known as “the trembling giant .” This
massive organism defies all expectations. It
is a grove of quaking aspens, named for the
sound the leaves make at even the slightest
flutter of wind.

Pando is a colony of trees spread across 100
acres of land, and every tree there is the
same organism. This is because quaking
aspen trees reproduce mainly by sprouting
new trees from an already existing root
system. A single organism can have many
tree trunks sprouting out of the ground.

Pando has 47,000 trunks. The individual
trunks only persist for 100 to 150 years or
so, but Pando as a whole has been estimated
to be at least 80,000 years old with
optimistic estimates at one million years old.

This everlasting grove is among the oldest
and largest living creatures on our planet
and weighs some 6 million kilograms (13
million lb).


0 Like

7. Hydra
See 1st picture below

This creature is only about 2.5 centimeters
(1 in) high and treelike. To understand its
place on our list, we need to understand the
concept of senescence, which is the increase
in mortality rate as a creature gets older.

For example, humans are more likely to die
the older we get. However, the Hydra does
not have this increase in mortality. (Except
for one species, Hydra oligactis . Sorry,

They accomplish this feat using three distinct
types of stem cells, which are initially
undifferentiated and can eventually become
many different specialized cell types. These
stem cells are actively renewing the body of
the Hydra and thus fighting off any aging
process that could lower their mortality rate.
In a laboratory setting, it’s estimated that 5
percent of Hydra could live up to 1,400
years using this process

6. Ocean Quahog Clam
See 2nd picture below

This marine bivalve mollusk is special
because it is exceptionally easy to determine
the creature’s age. Like a tree, its life span is
recorded in the growth rings of its shell.
Even more, those rings offer insight into its
life—with wide rings showing a year of
plentiful food and narrow rings showing a
scarcer time.

Due to this trait, one ocean quahog was
dated to 507 years old—the oldest of its kind
ever found. This would put its original
birthday sometime in 1499.

The secret to this longevity is linked to the
quahog’s unusually thin production of
reactive oxygen species, which are unstable
and oxygen-holding molecules (aka free
radicals). Buildup of these molecules can
cause damage to DNA, RNA, and proteins and
result in cell death.

Due to the quahog’s attenuated amount of
these reactive oxygen species, it is able to
fight off a common source of aging and live
for many centuries. The 507-year-old
quahog, named Ming, only met its end
because it was frozen after its capture to
allow researchers to properly determine its
age. In all likelihood, it could have lived for
much longer.

5. Lobster
See 3rd picture below

Often caught to be eaten as delicacies, these
bottom-feeding ocean animals have
indeterminate growth, which means they
have no maximum size. As a result, the
longer a lobster lives, the bigger it will get—
with no biological process to halt that

The heaviest lobster ever caught was a little
over 20 kilograms (44 lb). It was found off
the coast of Nova Scotia. Estimates of these
animals’ life span range from 50 to 100
years—not much different from that of
humans. But the fascinating thing about
lobsters is how they age and die. They show
no loss of appetite, sex drive, energy, or
metabolism as they get older.

However, lobsters do make it hard to
measure their age. They grow in a process of
molting, where they shed their entire
exoskeleton. After each molting, all hard
surfaces of the animal are discarded. So
there is nothing left that can be aged with

It is that process of molting that eventually
kills them and not the usual aging process
that humans face. The larger a lobster
becomes, the more dangerous molting is and
the more energy it takes.

Eventually, a large lobster will no longer be
able to survive the process or even muster
up enough energy to begin it, thanks to its
giant size. If this hurdle were somehow
removed, there’s no telling how long these
creatures could live.

4. Midland Painted Turtle
See 4th picture below

Although many turtles show a long life span
and lack of senescence, Blanding’s turtles
and midland painted turtles have a seemingly
backward take on aging. The elderly females
lay even more eggs than their younger
counterparts and die at a lower rate. They
become more likely to keep living with age.

The longevity of the entire turtle family is
impressive. One giant tortoise lived to at
least 250 in the Calcutta zoo. Dr. Christopher
J. Raxworthy from the American Museum of
Natural History said plainly, “Turtles don’t
really die of old age.” Instead, the internal
organs of elderly turtles are almost identical
to those of their teenage counterparts.

This impressive life span is also shown in
how slowly female turtles reach sexual
maturity—only after 40 or 50 years in some
species. Dr. Raxworthy added that if it
weren’t for getting crushed by an automobile
or falling prey to a disease, a turtle could
live indefinitely.

Continue Reading Below

0 Like

3. LEGO Master Builder
See 1st picture below

LEGO bricks transcend age, sex, borders, and
race. No matter who you are or what you
do, a LEGO set is all you need to push aside
everything else and spend the next four
hours trying to build something that you’ll
give up on anyway. And that’s okay. A big
part of the company’s success is being able
to engage the inherent builder in all of us,
even if we’re not that good at the job.

That doesn’t mean that everyone’s bad at it.
We all had that one kid in class who could
build intricate structures out of LEGO sets
and simply mesmerize us. If you were one of
those kids and have always wanted to do this
for a living, you can get paid tons of money
for it.

Known as LEGO master builders, these guys
are employed by the LEGO Group to create
those huge structures built of LEGO bricks
that occasionally go viral on the Internet. If
playing with LEGO pieces has been your
dream all along, you could definitely give
this a shot. However, you’d have to be really
good at it to even stand a chance.

2. Shark Tank Cleaner
See 2nd picture below

Most people visiting a shark tank (not the TV
show) have a great time, maybe have a snack
or two, and then return home. However, the
curious ones look at the whole setup and
think, “I wonder who cleans that?”
There’s no way to keep the artificially
created ecosystem healthy without someone
actually going into the tank and manually
cleaning it. In fact, there are shark tank
cleaners tasked with doing exactly that.

The job is dangerous because the sharks are
always in the aquarium. You can’t just make
an expensive secondary tank to house the
animals until the cleaning is done.
However, the cleaning isn’t what makes this
a badass job. It’s getting used to being
around sharks that are already angry at all
humans for keeping them in captivity.

cleaners have to learn shark behavior and be
good at diving—as well as knowing when to
get out—to even be considered for the role.
They spend around 30–40 hours in the tank
per week as a part of their job.

1. Odor Judge
See 3rd picture below

Smell is an important sense, which is
apparent by how many products rely on it to
make sales. From soaps to deodorants to
candles, how a product smells is as much a
part of its commercial success as its
appearance. So, who is in charge of making
sure that things smell the way they should?
You guessed it (presumably from the title of
this entry). Odor judges determine the best
smell for a particular product. Obviously,
they have to go through plenty of bad odors,
like those from armpits, to come up with a
deodorant to counter the smell.

It may sound like a horrible job, but it’s also
a crucial one. They also deal with issues like
whether a particular type of seafood is
contaminated by a nearby oil spill. Of
course, you must have a keen sense of smell
to qualify for this job, and it may end up
paying quite well if you work at a large


0 Like

7. White Hat Hackers
See 1st picture below

With almost everything from traffic to
government databases to supply line
inventories of big corporations now
operating through the Internet , hacking is an
increasingly serious threat for almost
everyone. This is especially true of hackers in
countries where the Internet isn’t regulated

As a result, there’s an equally high demand
for good hackers who know the basics of
getting into networks without being detected.

They expose vulnerabilities in high-value
targets like government databases.

Known as white hat hackers (as opposed to
the regular black hat hackers), these
individuals are hired by corporations and
governments around the world to do their
best to get into the employers’ networks. If
you’re really good at it, you may earn a
fortune for doing a contract job, with a
chance to be hired by your client at the end
of it.

The best part?

Absolutely no one will ask how you got those
skills in the first place as long as you’ve
never used them to do actual harm. To
qualify, you simply need to get really good
at hacking. Just make sure you don’t practice
on live targets, as that is illegal.

6. Iceberg Movers
See 2nd picture below

Potable drinking water is already on the
brink of running out for the whole world.
We may not hear much about it because the
crisis isn’t as dire in the loudest parts of the
world yet.

Many countries are now looking to Earth’s
natural ice reserves for help. They are
devising plans to haul entire icebergs from
the South Pole to their shores to harvest
water. The job is given to iceberg moving
companies, where you can apply to work if
you’re up for it.

Iceberg moving may sound impossible—like
mountain relocation or beach stealing.
However, many Middle Eastern countries are
already grappling with serious water scarcity
issues, so they’re willing to give it a shot.

Some iceberg towing companies are already
on their way to get the first icebergs to some
of those countries. Middle Eastern
governments are also hoping that huge
floating icebergs off the shores of their
countries may serve as tourist attractions,

5. Futurist
See 3rd picture below

Many current jobs have never existed before,
including that of a futurist. If it sounds like
someone who sits around all day and makes
predictions like a fortune-teller , it absolutely
is—except that the predictions have to be
backed by data.

It is one of the more accessible jobs on this
list (though not for scientific fields). In fact,
anyone can apply to be a futurist as many
New Age firms are starting to see the
importance of the position.

A futurist’s role is to study current data and
make reasonable predictions about future
trends based on that information. A
government may employ a futurist to predict
social changes in order to estimate taxes in
the future. An advertising firm may try to
find out what kind of messaging consumers
are likely to respond to 20 years from now.
Depending on your field, a job as a futurist
can be as awesome as it sounds or just entail
data crunching all day like your old job.

4. Food Stylist
See 4th picture below

Over the years, food advertising has come a
long way. If you’ve ever seen a food ad and
thought “wow, that looks good,” it’s not
because that’s how it’s supposed to look.
Instead, a highly specialized type of
professional called a food stylist made the
food look good for the camera.

If “food stylist” sounds like a joke, we assure
you that it’s absolutely not. You can go to
your local employment listings website and
find a posting for one of these right now.

The job is not easy to do, either. Apparently,
styling food is an art form that you master
after years of persistent practice, which also
involves know-how of photography and

If you do get your foot in the door and
become a food stylist for a local firm, you
may work your way up and someday get to
style food for the big brands. Needless to
say, that pays quite well.

0 Like

7. White Hat Hackers
See 1st picture below

With almost everything from traffic to
government databases to supply line
inventories of big corporations now
operating through the Internet , hacking is an
increasingly serious threat for almost
everyone. This is especially true of hackers in
countries where the Internet isn’t regulated

As a result, there’s an equally high demand
for good hackers who know the basics of
getting into networks without being detected.

They expose vulnerabilities in high-value
targets like government databases.

Known as white hat hackers (as opposed to
the regular black hat hackers), these
individuals are hired by corporations and
governments around the world to do their
best to get into the employers’ networks. If
you’re really good at it, you may earn a
fortune for doing a contract job, with a
chance to be hired by your client at the end
of it.

The best part?

Absolutely no one will ask how you got those
skills in the first place as long as you’ve
never used them to do actual harm. To
qualify, you simply need to get really good
at hacking. Just make sure you don’t practice
on live targets, as that is illegal.

6. Iceberg Movers
See 2nd picture below

Potable drinking water is already on the
brink of running out for the whole world.
We may not hear much about it because the
crisis isn’t as dire in the loudest parts of the
world yet.

Many countries are now looking to Earth’s
natural ice reserves for help. They are
devising plans to haul entire icebergs from
the South Pole to their shores to harvest
water. The job is given to iceberg moving
companies, where you can apply to work if
you’re up for it.

Iceberg moving may sound impossible—like
mountain relocation or beach stealing.
However, many Middle Eastern countries are
already grappling with serious water scarcity
issues, so they’re willing to give it a shot.

Some iceberg towing companies are already
on their way to get the first icebergs to some
of those countries. Middle Eastern
governments are also hoping that huge
floating icebergs off the shores of their
countries may serve as tourist attractions,

5. Futurist
See 3rd picture below

Many current jobs have never existed before,
including that of a futurist. If it sounds like
someone who sits around all day and makes
predictions like a fortune-teller , it absolutely
is—except that the predictions have to be
backed by data.

It is one of the more accessible jobs on this
list (though not for scientific fields). In fact,
anyone can apply to be a futurist as many
New Age firms are starting to see the
importance of the position.

A futurist’s role is to study current data and
make reasonable predictions about future
trends based on that information. A
government may employ a futurist to predict
social changes in order to estimate taxes in
the future. An advertising firm may try to
find out what kind of messaging consumers
are likely to respond to 20 years from now.
Depending on your field, a job as a futurist
can be as awesome as it sounds or just entail
data crunching all day like your old job.

4. Food Stylist
See 4th picture below

Over the years, food advertising has come a
long way. If you’ve ever seen a food ad and
thought “wow, that looks good,” it’s not
because that’s how it’s supposed to look.
Instead, a highly specialized type of
professional called a food stylist made the
food look good for the camera.

If “food stylist” sounds like a joke, we assure
you that it’s absolutely not. You can go to
your local employment listings website and
find a posting for one of these right now.

The job is not easy to do, either. Apparently,
styling food is an art form that you master
after years of persistent practice, which also
involves know-how of photography and

If you do get your foot in the door and
become a food stylist for a local firm, you
may work your way up and someday get to
style food for the big brands. Needless to
say, that pays quite well.

Continue Reading Below

0 Like

10. Thomas Midgley Jr. — Leaded Gasoline

Though awarded the Priestley Medal for his
"genius for benign invention," Midgley's legacy
today is less than stellar. His major inventions,
including tetraethyl lead gasoline and
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), have largely been
recognized as major contributors toward global
warming. At the time of its invention, leaded
gasoline helped reduce "knock" in engines, and
CFCs (used in Freon) led to safer and mass
market refrigeration methods.

Not only will Midgley go down in history as an
environmental vandal, he was actually killed by
one of his own inventions
, a pulley-system
contraption he had created to support himself
in bed while suffering from polio.

11. Thomas Adams — Chewing Gum

Elementary schoolteachers everywhere have
Thomas Adams to thank for the constant
reprimanding of gum-cracking students.
Before coming up with chewing gum, Adams
first tried utilizing chicle (a natural gum
ingredient collected from trees) for rain boots,
bicycle tires, masks and toys.

12. Stephanie Kwolek — Kevlar

One of the most notable women inventors,
Stephanie Kwolek is responsible for the
invention of kevlar in 1965, the synthetic fiber
used in bullet-proof vests. Kevlar is said to be
five times stronger than steel, and has played a
major role in the safety of soldiers, police
officers and even extreme sport athletes
around the world. Today, kevlar is used in
underwater cables, skis, boats, parachutes,
brake linings, fiber-optic cables, space vehicles
and building materials.

13. Pierre Lorillard IV — The Tuxedo

Gentlemen, next time you pull the penguin suit
out of the closet, you can thank (or curse)
Pierre Lorillard. Though there are a couple
schools of thought on the inventor of the
traditional men's formalwear, many scholars
credit Lorillard with the popularization of the
tux. Lorillard was a 19th-century wealthy
tobacco magnate who lived in Tuxedo Park, an
area northwest of New York City. In October of
1886, Lorillard's son Griswold sported a new
"tailless" black jacket to The Tuxedo Club 's first
annual Autumn Ball, thus condemning men
everywhere to the timeless fashion statement
for decades to come.
The inventor of the dog tuxedo is still up for


0 Like

5. The Murder of Jamal Khashoggi.

On October 2 Saudi dissident and
Washington Post columnist Jamal
Khashoggi entered the Saudi
consulate in Istanbul. He didn’t
come out alive. In the weeks that
followed, Saudi officials told various
stories about what happened. What
they hadn’t counted on was that
Turkish intelligence had bugged the
consulate and that Turkish President
Recep Tayyip Erdogan was willing to
release what he knew to embarrass
them. President Trump initially
suggested the murder wasn’t
America’s concern because “to the
best of our knowledge, Khashoggi is
not a United States citizen.” Congress
took a different view , especially
after the CIA concluded that Saudi
Crown Prince Mohammed bin
Salman (MBS) had ordered
Khashoggi’s murder. Trump
repudiated that conclusion, releasing
a statement saying “it could very
well be that the Crown Prince had
knowledge of this tragic event—
maybe he did and maybe he didn’t!”

The president said Riyadh’s
commitment to spend more than a
$100 billion on U.S. weapons
systems and its importance as an
ally justified his business-as-usual
approach. But Saudi arm purchases
actually are much smaller , and it’s
questionable whether relying on
MBS serves U.S. interests. He has
shown a penchant for recklessness:
he had many of his royal cousins
arrested; championed Saudi Arabia’s
ill-advised intervention in Yemen;
detained Lebanon’s prime minister
and temporarily forced him to
resign; led the effort to impose an
embargo on Qatar; and broke off
diplomatic relations with Canada
over a tweet. Saying that the Saudi
relationship is too important to
jeopardize only encourages further

4. The United States Leaves the Iran Nuclear Deal.
Donald Trump
vowed on the campaign trail to
withdraw the United States from the
Iran nuclear deal, formally known
as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of
Action (JCPOA). In May, Trump made
good on his pledge, claiming it was a
“one-sided deal that should have
never, ever been made.” Trump took
steps against the counsel of many of
his advisers and of America’s closest
allies. Secretary of Defense James
Mattis was among the cabinet
officers who argued that for all
deal’s weaknesses it was better to
stay in it .

British, French, and German leaders flew to Washington to lobby for the United States to stay in the deal, pledging to act to address
the deal’s shortcomings. No other
country followed the United States
out of the deal, even after the White
House announced that it would
sanction any firm that does business
with Iran. Iran remains in
compliance with the deal, and the
other signatories are looking for
ways to help Tehran ease the pain of
U.S. economic pressure. Whether
they will succeed and whether Iran
will leave the deal if they don’t are
two open questions. The Trump
administration has suggested that its
goal in Iran goes beyond shutting
down its nuclear program. Secretary
of State Mike Pompeo says the
administration “wants to restore
democracy” in Iran. And even if the
White House’s goals are more
modest, its sanctions effort could
trigger a transatlantic brawl if
European firms become the target of
U.S. penalties.

3. Dire Warnings About Climate Change Mount.

The world’s climate
is changing and human activity is
the cause. Scientists have been
telling us this for more than three
decades and evidence backs them up.

But these warnings haven’t led us to
change our ways. The emission of
the heat-trapping gases that produce
climate change continues to rise
globally. Now a sobering report
released by the United Nations
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) in October 2018 says
we may have as few as twelve years
to act or pass the point of no return.
To judge by the powerful hurricanes ,
devastating wildfires, floods , and
record-breaking heat in 2018 that
climate change fueled , we won’t like
the world we are heading toward.

But neither the UN report, nor the
freak weather events of 2018, nor
the release of a U.S. government
report outlining how much climate
change will harm the U.S. economy
has turned President Trump into a
climate-change believer. His rebuttal
to the National Climate Assessment
Report was simple: “I don’t believe
it.” The odds are good—very, very
good—that scientists have a better
handle on the future we face. But
sadly, they don’t have the ability
that an American president has to
keep us from going there.

2. The Weakening of the West Worsens.

For experts calling on
America’s friends to step up as
America steps down in world affairs,
2018 wasn’t a good year. Friend
after friend faced domestic problems
that made it hard for them to look,
let alone act, beyond their borders.
Hopes that the United Kingdom could
orchestrate an orderly divorce from
the European Union (EU) faded.

While the two sides reached a deal,
British Prime Minister Theresa May
couldn’t persuade the House of
Commons to endorse it. Whether
Britain is headed toward a hard
Brexit, a soft Brexit, or no Brexit at
all is anyone’s guess. Across the
English Channel, French President
Emmanuel Macron saw his public
approval ratings tumble into the
mid-twenties in the face of the gilets-
jaunes, or yellow-vest, protests. The
sometimes violent demonstrations
diminished Macron’s ability to push
ahead with his ambitious plans to
reform the French economy . Further
south, Italian voters elected a
populist coalition combining the
anti-establishment Five Star
Movement and the right-wing
League. The new government is now
fighting with Brussels over a draft
budget that violates EU rules. Prime
Minister Victor Orbán continued to
dismantle Hungary’s democracy, and
several other central European
countries drifted in the same
direction. Even Germany saw
domestic turmoil. Chancellor Angela
Merkel stepped down as head of the
Christian Democratic Union after the
party lost several critical state
elections. Merkel’s protégé Annegret
Kramp-Karrenbauer, succeeded her.

However, the chancellor no longer
commands the authority at home or
abroad she once did, raising fears
that Europe has become leaderless.

1. Trump Triggers a Trade War and

“I want tariffs,” Donald
Trump told his advisers in July 2017.

In 2018, he got his wish. In January
the administration imposed tariffs
on imported washing machines and
solar panels. A bigger move came in
March, though, when tariffs were
slapped on imported steel and
aluminum from friends and foes
alike because they posed a national
security threat. Trump subsequently
imposed tariffs on $50 billion worth
of Chinese imports, which by July he
had raised to $250 billion. Despite
tweeting that “Trade wars are good,
and easy to win,” Trump’s tariffs
had by year’s end hurt Americans
more than helped them. The stock
market sold off, the overall U.S.
trade deficit widened , and America’s
trading partners slapped retaliatory
tariffs on U.S. exports, causing
American farmers to lose overseas
markets and leading some U.S.
manufacturers cut jobs as higher
input costs punished their bottom
lines . Amidst this bad news, the
administration had second thoughts
about fighting trade wars across
multiple fronts. In July, Trump
struck a deal with the EU to hold off
on imposing further tariffs while the
two sides conducted new trade talks.

In November, he struck a ninety-day
trade truce with China. Trump’s
tariffs, coupled with his repeated
references to the EU as a “foe” and
threats to impose tariffs on imported
autos, left many Europeans
wondering whether traditional
transatlantic relations had changed
for good . Meanwhile in Beijing,
Chinese leaders hearing the talk in
Washington about “ strategic
competitors” and reading Vice
President Mike Pence’s tough speech
on Chinese behavior were debating
whether Trump was looking to do
more than just reset the bilateral
trade balance and instead seeking to
contain China’s rise as a great

Other stories of note in 2018 .

January, the Pentagon released a
National Defense Strategy that said
“great power competition—not
terrorism—is now the primary focus
of U.S. national security.” In
February, South Korea hosted the
Winter Olympics at PyeongChang.
Russian President Vladimir Putin
touted a new arsenal of weapons,
including an intercontinental
nuclear cruise missile, in March.
John Bolton became President
Trump’s third national security
advisor in April. In May, the U.S.

Embassy in Jerusalem opened . Nikki
Haley announced in June that the
United States is pulling out of the UN
Human Rights Council, calling it a
“protector of human rights abusers,
and a cesspool of political bias.” In
July, the Japan-EU Economic
Partnership Agreement was signed,
creating the largest world’s largest
free-bloc, covering 30 percent of
global trade. In August, Apple
became the first public company to
achieve a market capitalization of
$1 trillion. At the very last minute
in September, Canada agreed to join
with Mexico and the United States in
revamping the North America Free
Trade Agreement , now renamed the
United States-Mexico-Canada
Agreement. In October, the United
States informed Russia that it
intended to withdraw from the
Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty
because Russia was violating the
terms of the treaty . In November,
Russia fired upon and then seized
three Ukrainian naval vessels in the
Sea of Azov, escalating tensions
between Moscow and Kiev. In
December, the Comprehensive and
Progressive Agreement for Trans-
Pacific Partnership, essentially the
Trans-Pacific Partnership minus the
United States, went into effect.


0 Like

Hello sir! @Seuncoded

I cannot see the comments of members on my thread but I do see notifications that some certain people have commented.

i guess it is due to the system that operates that does not display the comments of unverified accounts.. Is it so or I have a problem?


4. Bata Shoe Museum Canada
See 1st picture below

Shoe collecting has been a popular female
hobby for centuries. From basic “flip-flops”
and sandals to elaborate fashion footwear,
the humble shoe is something most of us
wear daily.

In Toronto, Canada, you can actually enter a
shoebox-shaped museum to explore the
history of footwear. The wife of Bata Shoe
Company founder Thomas Bata outdid even
Imelda Marcos’s infamous shoe collection.

Sonja Bata began amusing herself by
shopping for shoes when accompanying her
husband on business trips. Her collection
started back in the 1940s. By the 1970s, it
had outgrown their home, so the Bata Shoe
Museum was established in 1992. In 1995, it
moved to its current location.

Visitors to the museum can view over 13,000
shoes spanning over 4,500 years of footwear
history. From Chinese “foot bound” shoes to
basic sandals and ludicrous fashion items,
visitors can learn about the background of
these items as well as the changes in
shoemaking across the centuries.

3. Dog Collar Museum Kent, England
See 2nd picture below

Dog collars have been a basic canine
accessory since medieval times. Spiked
leather collars were originally used to
protect hunting dogs from predators, while
more privileged pooches donned elaborate
bejeweled ornamental collars.

Even today, we clip on a nylon collar to
attach a lead or identification tag. Any pet
store has a range of doggie neckwear for
your canine companion.

At Leeds Castle in Kent, you will find a
museum dedicated to dog collars across the
ages. Since 1976, the museum has displayed
about 100 dog collars dating from medieval
to Victorian times. The exhibit has collars
that would seem barbaric by modern
standards as well as elaborate royal collars
decorated with each owner’s coat of arms.

An estimated 500,000 individuals visit the
museum each year to browse through five
centuries of doggie fashion.

2. Skull Tower Of Nis Serbia
See 3rd picture below

Serbia’s somewhat gruesome “Skull Tower of
Nis” dates back to the Battle of Cegar in
1809. With Turkish forces fast closing in,
Serbian commander Stevan Sindelic blew up
a gunpowder store, killing himself and fellow
soldiers to save them from torture by their

Vizier Hurshid Pasha had the deceased rebels
decapitated. Then the heads were skinned
and stuffed. Finally, a 4.6-meter (15 ft)
tower using the skulls of the 952 fallen
Serbian soldiers was erected as a clear
message to rebels.

Over time, some skulls fell from the wall
while others were taken by relatives for
burial. As of 2013, 58 skulls remained on
display, including a glass-encased exhibit
said to hold the skull of Sindelic.

A chapel was built around the tower in 1892
to preserve it as a monument to the fallen
troops and a reminder of the barbarities of

1. Lunchbox Museum Columbus, Georgia
See 4th picture below

Over the years, we’ve all had our favorite
lunchboxes—those utilitarian little objects
that safely carried our sandwiches and fruit
to school or work. Some of us will remember
the metal boxes of the 1950s and 1960s—
from the black-and-red plaid tins to those
decorated with decals of our favorite folk

In more recent years, we shifted to plastic
containers. These included the simple lidded
plastic boxes and the trendy pop culture or
Disney varieties that every school child “has
to have.”

But did you know that there is actually a
museum dedicated to lunchboxes? Above a
country music station in Columbus, Georgia,
you will find a museum displaying thousands
of lunchboxes, thermoses, and coolers.
Owner Allen Woodall first began collecting
lunchboxes in the 1990s. His museum
collection is open to the public and displays
the history of this humble container from
the 1950s to the present.


0 Like

8. Toilet Museum South Korea
See 1st picture below

You certainly won’t have difficulty finding
the public restrooms in this South Korean
facility. Haewoojae is an entire museum
dedicated to the history of toilets and

Despite the obvious lavatory humor, the
museum actually has serious origins. Sim
Jae-duck, or “Mr Toilet” as he became
known, worked to improve the city toilets
during his time as mayor of Suwon City,
South Korea. He also aimed to improve
sanitation around the world with the “World
Toilet Association.”

He even built a toilet-shaped house which
was turned into a museum after his 2009
death. The original museum was
predominately toilet-themed signage and
educational material on the importance of
clean toilet facilities.

Since 2012, the museum has expanded to display a history of water closets, squat toilets, and public urinals from around the world.

7. Cup Noodles Museum Osaka
See 2nd picture below

Cup noodles are seen as a rather boring
foodstuff that is traditionally eaten by poor
students trying to pay their way through
college. With over 100 billion servings of
instant noodles consumed globally each
year, it probably isn’t surprising that a cup
noodles museum exists.

In Osaka, Japan, you can visit a museum
entirely devoted to the 60-year history of
such noodles. The Momofuku Ando Instant
Ramen Museum tells the history of instant
noodles from the first Chicken Ramen
noodles in the 1950s to the many varieties
available today.

Exhibits include a re-creation of the
inventor’s work shed where the first cup
noodles were developed as well as displays
of noodles sent into space to feed
astronauts. The “Instant Noodles Tunnel”
displays packaging from over 800 varieties
of noodles, providing a great “selfie”
opportunity for ramen lovers.
Visitors even have the opportunity to attend
a workshop to create and package their own
variety of ramen noodles.

6. Kansas Barbed Wire
See 3rd picture below

Travel through any rural area in the world,
and you are likely to find stretches of barbed
wire fencing surrounding properties. You
may expect to find samples of this spiky
fencing wire in an agricultural museum.

Yet in La Crosse, Kansas, you will discover an
entire museum dedicated to barbed wire.

You’ll be amazed to find over 2,400 versions
of barbed wire on display there.

The museum covers the history of barbed
wire from its invention during the 1870s to
help protect holdings in America’s Midwest
to its uses during the war years and in
modern fencing applications.

You can also explore exhibits of fencing tools
and equipment. A whole museum dedicated
to fencing wire may sound uninteresting.

However, the impact of this basic fencing
material throughout its history makes for a
fascinating display.

5. Spam Museum Austin, Minnesota
See 4th picture below

Many of us shudder at the thought of eating
“Spam,” the highly processed tinned pork
that Hormel Foods first introduced to the US
market in 1937. While the long-life
convenience food certainly had its place as a
staple for troops during World War II , the
square tin of meat has become a much-
maligned product in more recent years.
Yet there is actually a Spam Museum in
Austin, Minnesota. Hormel Foods first
established a small museum in a mall in
1991 before moving to a bigger, more
accessible site in recent years.

Here you can learn the history of Spam
production and its role during the war years.

You can even taste Spam varieties. Yes, there
are different types sold throughout the
world. Visitors can even pick up some Spam
recipes for their next dinner party.

Continue Reading Below

0 Like

In July, Space X enjoyed the successful
landing of a new Block 5 Falcon rocket,
which touched down on a drone ship less
than 9 minutes after liftoff.

BFR Mission to Mars

In September 2017, Musk presented an
updated design plan for his BFR (an
acronym for either "Big F---ing Rocket" or
"Big Falcon Rocket"), a 31-engine
behemoth topped by a spaceship capable
of carrying at least 100 people. He
revealed that SpaceX was aiming to launch
the first cargo missions to Mars with the
vehicle in 2022, as part of his overarching
goal of colonizing the Red Planet.

In March 2018, the entrepreneur told an
audience at the annual South by Southwest
festival in Austin, Texas, that he hoped to
have the BFR ready for short flights early
the following year, while delivering a
knowing nod at his previous problems with
meeting deadlines.

The following month, it was announced
that SpaceX would construct a facility at
the Port of Los Angeles to build and house
the BFR. The port property presented an
ideal location for SpaceX, as its mammoth
rocket will only be movable by barge or
ship when completed.

Internet Satellites

In late March 2018, SpaceX received
permission from the U.S. government to
launch a fleet of satellites into low orbit
for the purpose of providing Internet
service. Ideally, the system would make
broadband service more accessible for
people in rural areas, while also boosting
competition in heavily populated markets
that are typically dominated by one or two
providers. Critics countered that such a
system would present a safety hazard with
the skies above us cluttered by debris.

Tesla Motors

Elon Musk is the co-founder, CEO and
product architect at Tesla Motors, a
company dedicated to producing
affordable, mass-market electric cars as
well as battery products and solar roofs.
Musk oversees all product development,
engineering and design of the company's

Five years after its formation, in 2008, the
company unveiled the Roadster, a sports
car capable of accelerating from 0 to 60
mph in 3.7 seconds, as well traveling
nearly 250 miles between charges of its
lithium ion battery. With a stake in the
company taken by Daimler and a strategic
partnership with Toyota, Tesla Motors
launched its initial public offering in June
2010, raising $226 million.

Additional successes include the Model S,
the company's first electric sedan. Capable
of covering 265 miles between charges,
the Model S was honored as the 2013 Car
of the Year by Motor Trend magazine.

In April 2017, Tesla announced that it
surpassed General Motors to become the
most valuable U.S. car maker. The news
was an obvious boon to Tesla, which was
looking to ramp up production and release
its Model 3 sedan later that year.

In November, Musk made another splash
with the unveiling of the new Tesla Semi
and Roadster at the company's design
studio. The semi truck, which enters into
production in 2019, boasts 500 miles of
range as well as a battery and motors built
to last 1 million miles. The Roadster, set to
follow in 2020, will become the fastest
production car ever made with its 0 to 60
time of 1.9 seconds.

After initially aiming to produce
5,000 new Model 3 cars per week by
December 2017, Musk pushed that goal
back to March 2018, and then to June with
the start of the new year. The announced
delay didn't surprise industry experts, who
were well aware of the company's
production problems, though some
questioned how long investors would
remain patient with the process. It also
didn't prevent Musk from garnering a
radical new compensation package as CEO,
in which he would be paid after reaching
milestones of growing valuation based on
$50 billion increments.

By April 2018, with Tesla expected to fall
short of first-quarter production
forecasts, news surfaced that Musk had
pushed aside the head of engineering to
personally oversee efforts in that division.

In a Twitter exchange with a reporter,
Musk said it was important to "divide and
conquer" to meet production goals and
was "back to sleeping at factory."

After signaling that the company would
reorganize its management structure, Musk
in June announced that Tesla was laying off
9 percent of its workforce, though its
production department would remain
intact. In an email to employees, Musk
explained his decision to eliminate some
"duplication of roles" to cut costs,
admitting it was time to take serious steps
toward turning a profit.

The restructuring appeared to pay
dividends, as it was announced that Tesla
had met its goal of producing 5,000 Model
3 cars per week by the end of June, while
churning out another 2,000 Model S
sedans and Model X SUVs. "We did it!"
Musk wrote in an celebratory email to the
company. "What an incredible job by an
amazing team."

The following February, Musk announced
that the company was finally rolling out its
standard Model 3 at a starting price of
$35,000. Musk also said that Tesla was
shifting to all-online sales, and offering
customers the chance to return their cars
within seven days or 1,000 miles for a full
refund. A few days later, he announced
that the long-awaited Model Y would be
unveiled on March 14.

Uproar over Going Private

On August 7, 2018, Musk dropped a
bombshell via a tweet: "Am considering
taking Tesla private at $420. Funding

The announcement sent Tesla stock
spiking, before it closed the day up 11
percent. Meanwhile, the CEO followed up
with a letter on the company blog, calling
the move to go private "the best path
forward." He promised to retain his stake
in the company, and added that he would
create a special fund to help all current
investors remain on board.

However, the announcement also opened
the door for legal action against the
company and its founder, as the SEC began
inquiring about whether Musk had indeed
secured the funding as claimed.

Additionally, several investors filed
lawsuits on the grounds that Musk was
looking to manipulate stock prices and
ambush short sellers with his tweet.
Musk sought to clarify his position on
August 13 with a statement in which he
pointed to discussions with the managing
director of the Saudi Arabian sovereign
wealth fund as the source of his "funding
secured" declaration. He later tweeted that
he was working on a proposal to take Tesla
private with Goldman Sachs and Silver Lake
as financial advisers.

The saga took a bizarre turn that day when
rapper Azealia Banks wrote on Instagram
that, as a guest at Musk's home at the
time, she learned that he was under the
influence of LSD when he fired off his
headline-grabbing tweet and overheard
him making phone calls to drum up the
funding he promised was already in place.

However, the news quickly turned serious
again when it was reported that Tesla's
outside directors had retained two law
firms to deal with the SEC inquiry and the
CEO's plans to take the company private.

On August 24, one day after meeting with
the board, Musk announced that he had
reversed course and would not be taking
the company private. Among his reasons,
he cited the preference of most directors
to keep Tesla public, as well as the
difficulty of retaining some of the large
shareholders who were prohibited from
investing in a private company. Others
suggested that Musk was also influenced by
the poor optics of an electric car company
being funded by Saudi Arabia, a country
heavily involved in the oil industry.

On September 29, Musk agreed to step
down as chairman of Tesla's board for
three years as part of an agreement with
the SEC. He also has to pay a $20 million

SolarCity Acquisition

In August 2016, in Musk’s continuing
effort to promote and advance sustainable
energy and products for a wider consumer
base, a $2.6 billion dollar deal was
solidified to combine his electric car and
solar energy companies. His Tesla Motors
Inc. announced an all-stock deal purchase
of SolarCity Corp., a company Musk had
helped his cousins start in 2006. He is a
majority shareholder in each entity.

“Solar and storage are at their best when
they're combined. As one company, Tesla
(storage) and SolarCity (solar) can create
fully integrated residential, commercial
and grid-scale products that improve the
way that energy is generated, stored and
consumed,” read a statement on Tesla’s
website about the deal.

Elon Musk’s Wives

Elon Musk has been married twice. He wed
Justine Wilson in 2000. After a contentious
divorce, Musk met actress Talulah Riley,
and the couple married in 2010. They split
in 2012 but married each other again in
2013. Their relationship ultimately ended
in divorce in 2016. Musk has also been
romantically involved with actress Amber
Heard and musician Grimes.

Musk has five sons with ex-wife Justine
Wilson. In 2002, his first son with died at
10 weeks old from sudden infant death
syndrome (SIDS). Musk and Wilson had five
additional sons together: twins and

Birthday & Nationality

Elon Musk was born on June 28, 1971, in
Pretoria, South Africa. He obtained his
Canadian citizenship in 1989, in part
because he felt it would be easier to
obtain American citizenship via that path.

In 2002, he achieved his goal of becoming
a U.S. citizen.

Young Elon Musk

Son of a Canadian mother and a South
African father, Musk spent his early
childhood with his brother Kimbal and
sister Tosca in South Africa. At 10, around
the time his parents divorced, the
introverted Elon developed an interest in
computers. He taught himself how to
program, and when he was 12 he made his
first software sale of a game he created
called Blastar.

Other Inventions & Innovations

Outside of his roles at SpaceX and Tesla,
Musk has continually attempted to make
his innovative ideas a reality.


In August 2013, Elon Musk released a
concept for a new form of transportation
called the "Hyperloop," an invention that
would foster commuting between major
cities while severely cutting travel time.
Ideally resistant to weather and powered
by renewable energy, the Hyperloop would
propel riders in pods through a network of
low-pressure tubes at speeds reaching
more than 700 mph. Musk noted that the
Hyperloop could take from seven to 10
years to be built and ready for use.

Although he introduced the Hyperloop
with claims that it would be safer than a
plane or train, with an estimated cost of
$6 billion — approximately one-tenth of
the cost for the rail system planned by the
state of California — Musk's concept has
drawn skepticism. Nevertheless, the
entrepreneur has sought to encourage the
development of this idea. After he
announced a competition for teams to
submit their designs for a Hyperloop pod
prototype, the first Hyperloop Pod
Competition was held at the SpaceX facility
in January 2017.

AI and Neuralink

Elon Musk has pursued an interest in
artificial intelligence, becoming co-chair
of the nonprofit OpenAI. The research
company launched in late 2015 with the
stated mission of advancing digital
intelligence to benefit humanity.

In 2017, it was also revealed that Musk
was backing a venture called Neuralink,
which intends to create devices to be
implanted in the human brain and help
people merge with software.

Boring Company

In yet another innovation, in January 2017
Elon Musk suddenly decided he was going
find a way to reduce traffic by devoting
resources to boring and building tunnels.

He launched his venture, named "The
Boring Company," with a test dig on the
SpaceX property in Los Angeles. In late
October, Musk posted the first photo of
his company's progress to his Instagram
page. He said the 500-foot tunnel, which
would generally run parallel to Interstate
405, would reach a length of two miles in
approximately four months.


The entrepreneur also reportedly found a
market for the Boring Company's
flamethrowers; after announcing they were
going on sale for $500 apiece in late
January 2018, he claimed to have sold
10,000 of them within a day.

High-Speed Train

In late November 2017, after Chicago
Mayor Rahm Emanuel asked for proposals
to build and operate a high-speed rail line
that would transport passengers from
O'Hare Airport to downtown Chicago in 20
minutes or less, Musk tweeted that he was
all-in on the competition with his Boring
Company. He said that the concept of the
Chicago loop would be different from his
Hyperloop, its relatively short route not
requiring the need for drawing a vacuum
to eliminate air friction.

Elon Musk and Donald Trump

With Donald Trump announcing plans to
pursue massive infrastructure
developments after his successful election
to the U.S. presidency in 2016, Musk
found himself on common ground with the
new president and his advisers. That
December, he was named to President
Trump’s Strategy and Policy Forum, and
the following January he joined Trump's
Manufacturing Jobs Initiative.

While sometimes at odds with the
president's controversial measures, such
as a proposed ban on immigrants from
Muslim-majority countries, Musk defended
his involvement with the new
administration. "My goals," he tweeted in
early 2017, "are to accelerate the world’s
transition to sustainable energy and to
help make humanity a multi-planet
civilization, a consequence of which will be
the creating of hundreds of thousands of
jobs and a more inspiring future for all."

On June 1, following Trump's
announcement that he was withdrawing
the U.S. from the Paris climate accord,
Musk stepped down from his advisory

Elon Musk’s Nonprofit

The boundless potential of space
exploration and the preservation of the
future of the human race have become the
cornerstones of Musk's abiding interests,
and toward these he has founded the Musk
Foundation, which is dedicated to space
exploration and the discovery of
renewable and clean energy sources.


For more information, see: en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elon_Musk

0 Like

5. King Robert II

Robert II of Scotland was in his fifties when
he became king of Scotland in 1371. He had
been the heir presumptive for over 50 years.
He was also the first king of the Stuart
dynasty, which ruled Scotland until 1603 and
then all of Britain until 1714.

By the time he became king, Robert was very
experienced in the government of the realm
and knew exactly how to twist it to his
desires. While the last king had tried to
dominate and suppress his nobles, Robert
instead granted them more local powers and
earned their goodwill. Rather than take their
lands by force, he paid them significant
amounts of money and then gave the lands
to his sons.

By the end of Robert’s reign, over half the
most powerful nobles in Scotland were
Stuarts, all but ensuring their dominance of
Scotland for the next few centuries. Unlike
previous Scottish kings who’d spent most of
their time courting their followers in lowland
Scotland, Robert frequently toured the
entire country with his court, engaging in
diplomacy with his vassals and securing their
support and respect.

His skills in diplomacy extended beyond the
kingdom, too. Within weeks of being
crowned, Robert formed the alliance with
France that would be crucial to Scottish
security in later centuries by defending them
from English ambitions.

However, his wise, levelheaded approach to
governance couldn’t last forever. When
tensions began to rise once more between
England and Scotland, Robert did everything
he could to avoid war and alienated many of
his supporters in the process.

Eventually, the royal council stripped him of
a large portion of his royal power. They gave
it to his son as lieutenant of Scotland, who
promptly led the kingdom to war. Robert
spent the rest of his reign as a figurehead
king with little, if any, power.

4. King Edgar The Peaceful

While Athelstan was the first actual king of
England, it was Edgar the Peaceful who laid
the foundations of a long-lasting, powerful
realm. He worked tirelessly to centralize the
power of the monarchy over the whole
kingdom. He was also responsible for
defining a system of weights and measures to
be used across the kingdom. Although many
kings had tried this, he was the first whose
system was widely implemented and used.

His laws fundamentally shaped medieval
England and would long be considered the
standard which English people expected their
kings to follow. When King Cnut invaded
decades after Edgar’s death, Cnut swore that
he would continue to uphold the laws of King

Edgar the Peaceful was also instrumental in
the foundation of a modern, nationalized
currency for England. Before his reign,
coinage was produced on a regional basis.
The average silver penny varied in size,
weight, and stamp across the kingdom.

By the end of his reforms, the penny had a
standardized size and was stamped with the
same design at all the royal mints. Edgar’s
currency reform dramatically increased the
wealth of the English monarchs and allowed
later Anglo-Saxon kings to keep the peace by
paying money to the Vikings, preventing
them from burning coastal settlements.

3. King William II ‘Rufus’

When William the Conqueror was dying of his
wounds in 1087, he made the succession
clear: His eldest son, Robert, was not to be
king of England. Instead, he would be made
duke of Normandy and the kingdom that
William had built for 20 years would pass to
his second surviving son.

Rufus—a nickname that supposedly referred
to his ruddy complexion and possibly to his
drunkenness or angry nature—was far from
perfect as a king. But he was certainly a
better choice than Robert, who’d once
started a full-on rebellion because his
younger brothers emptied a chamber pot
over his head.

When William Rufus became king, Robert
naturally disputed it. He launched a rebellion
against Rufus, but the rebellion fell apart
quickly when Robert failed to turn up.

Secure in his throne, Rufus ruled for 13
years. He was triumphant against the Scots,
securing the border and taking Cumbria for
the English throne, and he made lots of
money for the royal coffers by levying high
taxes on the realm.

He also profited from the free investiture
rules (enacted by his father) by purposely
leaving bishoprics empty, meaning their
incomes automatically went to Rufus.
However, this also deprived people of the
religious leadership they wanted.

This act in particular seems to have earned
him many enemies. Alongside the fact that
he had never married, this may have led to
the widespread anger and accusations of
sodomy that many chroniclers (who were
usually monks) threw at him in the years
following his death.

William Rufus was an unpopular king either
way and was said to have been more
interested in enjoying himself than governing
the country properly. When he died in a
hunting accident in 1100, very few people
mourned his loss.

2. King Henry I

Henry was unlike his brother Rufus in almost
every way. Henry’s nickname, Beauclerk,
hinted at his learned nature and his
knowledge of Latin. When Rufus died in
1100, Henry was on the same hunting trip
and his brother Robert was away in the Holy
Land. The coincidence has led many
historians to accuse Henry of assassination .

As the older brother, Robert felt that he had
a greater claim to the throne than Henry and
hurried home from the crusade to take the
kingdom for himself. To begin with, many of
the nobility were on his side, but Henry was
able to turn them by issuing the Charter of
Liberties, a document which pledged to undo
the corrupt practices of his brother and
restore law and order to the kingdom.

It also promised to clear any debts or
murder charges still facing any nobles who
joined Henry, a cunning scheme to persuade
them to take his side to avoid their
punishments. The Charter of Liberties placed
many restrictions on the king and effectively
prevented him from interfering in the
succession of his vassals at all.

Henry imprisoned Robert for life after
capturing him in 1106. With Henry in a
much stronger position, he ignored many of
the restrictions set out in the Charter of

Instead, he was responsible for establishing
the most efficient and advanced English state
that had been seen up to that point. He
made many new royal justices who roamed
the countryside ensuring that courts were
functioning properly and that all criminals
paid their fees to the crown.

He also established the office of the
exchequer, which even today manages the
income and expenditures of the British state.
Henry reformed the currency three times
during his reign—in 1107, 1108, and 1125.

The first pipe roll, the records that kept
track of royal expenditures, was created in

1. King Constantine II

If Kenneth was the first king of a united
Scotland, then his grandson Constantine was
the king who shaped the country into
something we’d recognize as Scotland today.

Over the course of his 43-year reign, it went
from being called the Kingdom of the Picts
to the Kingdom of Alba, the Gaelic word for
“Scotland.” The words “Scot” and “Scotland”
were first used during his reign.
In the third year of Constantine’s reign, the
Vikings returned and pillaged the kingdom.

They made it as far as Dunkeld, where they
looted many Scottish religious treasures.

From then on, Constantine’s main focus
seems to have been on defeating the Vikings.
He allied himself with the English for much
of his reign, even deigning to visit the court
of Athelstan and witness his laws in return
for peace and cooperation. In 918, he
worked with the Northumbrians. Together,
the Scottish and English armies met the
Vikings at the Battle of Corbridge.

The most powerful Vikings were the Ui Imair,
who had their base in the Hebrides. While
the history of the conflict between
Constantine and the Ui Imair is shrouded in
uncertainty, their influence had faded in the
face of a centralized Scotland by the end of
Constantine’s rule.

When he was in his sixties, Constantine had
been king for so many years that he simply
handed the kingdom to his nephew,
Malcolm, and lived the rest of his life as the
abbot of St. Andrews, dedicating his time to
teaching and study. The peaceful succession
was a rarity in both Scotland and England at
the time and reveals just how successful his
efforts to create a peaceful, stable realm had


0 Like

5. Negative Punctuation

The texting language has a life of its own.
With the complexities of language and the
human mind, it soon evolved a few quirks to
mimic the emotions of the spoken word.
Without most people realizing it, one
punctuation mark is being culled because it
makes the sender seem angry.

The full stop, period, or point is used to
show the end of a sentence. However, in
texting, it suggests the end of someone’s
rope or even trustworthiness. Undoubtedly,
some people use it because the period is the
correct way to end a written line. But to
some receivers of such messages—especially
when they love textspeak—it may appear

For some reason, there was also a perception
of insincerity when volunteers looked at text
messages marked with periods. Interestingly,
they saw no “falseness” to a similar message
written on paper. Researchers suspect that
periods in texting, a casual medium, appear
overly formal and this is why they feel

4. Aggression Is Hereditary

After millennia of violence , modern society
inherited a problem. Humans developed
genes that promote aggression and, worse
yet, evolved others that prevent self-control.

This means that those who are genetically
predisposed to anger often try to stay calm
but lack the efficient brain regions
responsible for emotion control.

Researchers who lived with hunter-gatherer
tribes saw firsthand how violence benefited
the most homicidal members. The men who
murdered others survived longer and had
more kids. The genes exist in up to 40
percent of the world’s male population.

The strongest influence comes from the
MAOA gene, which plays a role in regulating
emotions. Those with the low-functioning
variant are more likely to lose control,
especially when they had a traumatic
childhood. Those with the high-functioning
variant might get violent but only when

The most remarkable aspect was that all the
volunteers in the study were mentally
healthy university students, not people with
emotional disturbances.

3. The World Is Angrier

It may sound fictitious, but the Global State
of Emotions report is a real thing. For its
2018 edition, an analytics firm called Gallup
performed interviews with over 151,000
people from more than 140 countries. Adults
were questioned about how often they
experienced both positive and negative
emotions. The results were published in

Those who said they suffered from sadness
and worry had increased by one percentage
point from the previous year. Anger was up
by two percentage points. All three negative
emotions stood at new record heights,
suggesting that people are more blue,
worried, and full of rage than ever before.

The implications could be disastrous. There
are clear links between negative emotions
and health problems, especially high blood
pressure, heart disease, and stroke. If the
trend continues to climb, scientists fear that
the global population could become
increasingly unhealthy.

2. Pyt

As the rest of the world descends into anger,
the Danes remain perky. In fact, Denmark is
one of the happiest nations on the planet,
and it might have something to do with the
word “pyt.” Recently voted as their favorite
word, an exact English translation does not
exist. However, it could be the answer to
lower stress and anger levels.
It is almost used as the phrase, “Oh well,” to
accept that hassles happen. Upon spotting a
parking ticket, a Dane might first feel
frustrated but then shrug and say, “Pyt.”

Acceptance is key because it prevents anger
from snowballing and ruining the rest of the

Teachers have pyt buttons for kids to push
when they lose a game or need to let go of
something that cannot be changed. This
teaches them not to overreact but to
refocus, settle, and go on.

Of course, the word is used responsibly. Pyt
exists to wave off minor frustrations before
they can morph into monsters. It is never
used to excuse laziness or a situation where
someone was seriously wronged.

1. Anger Clubs

It was only a matter of time before
somebody opened a club for the enraged.
London hosts the Rage Club and the Wreck
Room, while New York sprouted the like-
minded Rage Cage and Wrecking Club.
Similar places are popping up all over the
world. Some are mild. They allow people to
meet and discuss their anger triggers before
taking their rage out on paper by scribbling
anything from vengeful slashes to sailor

Others are more violent. Members dress up
in protective gear—already a cool thing—and
then smash stuff with sledgehammers. While
loud music plays, things like crockery and
TVs get smashed to bits.

At the end of the day, the clubs all share the
same purpose. They provide people with a
safe space to let off steam. It is not therapy.
But it often provides individuals with the
first opportunity to examine what causes
their anger because they can express it
without shame.


0 Like

5. Iroquois Confederacy

The Iroquois Confederacy was a union of five
—later six— Native American tribes who lived
in the New York state area before the arrival
of the first European colonists. Originally
enemies, they were united by the
semilegendary figure Hiawatha, who
encouraged the tribes to work together and
not to attack each other, instead helping
each other to tackle their enemies.

The arrangement soon became a basis for
government. Because Iroquois society was
matriarchal, the individual clans and families
were led by clan mothers. Each clan mother
chose a chief to send to the Iroquois
council, which was made up of 50 chiefs. The
decisions of the council had to be
unanimous, so no action would be taken
until all 50 chiefs could be persuaded to
support it.

As time went on, the Iroquois agreement
became cemented in the Great Law of Peace,
which was divided into 117 separate articles
governing everything from religious and
state ceremonies which helped to cement a
feeling of unity between the six tribes, to
protecting individual liberties and the
concept of separate powers. Despite
originally being recorded on strings of
wampum shells because the Iroquois had no
written alphabet, it was a highly complex
and involved constitution. Ideas from it
influenced the development of the United
States Constitution—particularly Benjamin
Franklin’s Albany Plan. In 1748, the Iroquois
chiefs offered to teach their democratic
principles to the British colonists.

The confederacy ended in 1784 in a brief but
devastating war with the United States. Two
of the tribes decided to relocate to British
Canada for protection, one moved to a
reservation in Wisconsin, and three were
moved to reservations in New York, where
they remain today.

4. Sparta

In the past, it wasn’t unusual for a country
to be run by a single king or queen. What
was far more uncommon, however, was a
country ruled by two different kings from
entirely different families at the same time—
but this was the system the Spartans used.

The two kings were also priests of Zeus ,
making them especially important in the
religious structure of the city-state. In times
of war, one of the kings would lead the army
to battle, and he would have almost
unlimited power over the soldiers. When in
the city itself, though, the kings had
surprisingly little influence over state affairs:
that was reserved for the Gerousia, the
council of elders.

The Gerousia was made up of 28 elders and
the two kings. Each elder had to be at least
60 years old. They were elected by the
people in a voice vote—the candidate who
received the loudest vote was chosen, after
which he held the position for life. The
Gerousia mainly existed to advise the kings
on matters of government and to settle
disputes between other Spartans—the
council was also Sparta’s high court.
Proposed law changes were voted on by the
people’s assembly, which met once a month
and of which every male Spartan citizen over
30 was a member. Unlike in other Greek
democracies, however, the assembly had
very little power: It was not allowed to
debate issues, only vote yes or no on them,
and the Gerousia had the power to overturn
any vote they deemed to be “crooked.” The
assembly was originally overseen by the
kings, but in later years, it was managed by
the ephors, five people who were elected for
a single one-year term (and who were
banned from standing again after) by the

The ephors were originally introduced to
oversee government practice but, much like
the Council of Ten in Venice, soon seized
power for themselves. Their role allowed
them to scrutinize and punish any in the
government who they saw as acting illegally,
which frequently led to the ephors abusing
their position. By the end of the Spartan
age, the ephors controlled the activities of
the kings and had their own secret police

3. Babylon

Long before the ancient Greeks , the
Babylonian Empire stretched across most of
Mesopotamia, uniting the region under a
single government that, at its height, could
easily have opposed the might of ancient

The strength of the Babylonians lay in their
authoritarian, centralized system of
government that prioritized efficiency above
all things. At the center of their system was
the king, who was considered a god on Earth
and who, if his mind was made up, no one
could contradict. The king enforced his rule
with an organized bureaucratic system of
taxation, military conscription, census
records, and records of goods created,
traded, and stored. This was maintained by a
large elite civil service who kept things
moving and who owed their power to the

Perhaps most famously, though, the
Babylonians created a well-known set of
laws. The laws, which are often known as the
Code of Hammurabi (named after the king
who introduced them) were written so that
the “strong should not harm the weak” and
to “further the well-being of mankind,”
according to Hammurabi himself. In all, it
consisted of around 280 separate laws, most
of which set out the responsibilities of
people who entered contracts—for example,
holding a builder to account for a house that
falls down or removing a judge who changed
his decision after it had been written down.

2. Holy Roman Empire

In all of human history, few governments
have matched the Holy Roman Empire for
sheer complexity. To fully explain the
government of medieval Germany would take
an entire list by itself, but at its heart, the
Holy Roman Empire was governed by two
separate bodies: the emperor and the

The emperor ruled for life, but unlike many
other medieval monarchies , the position was
not hereditary. Instead, on the emperor’s
death, it was the duty of the empire’s
electors to select a new emperor. For most
of the empire’s history, the electors were the
archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne,
the king of Bohemia, the margrave of
Brandenburg, the elector of Saxony, and the
count of the Rhine. The emperor had to be at
least 18 years old, be of noble blood, and
own land in the empire. This meant that,
while it was rare, monarchs of other states
could be put forward as legitimate
candidates for emperor. Otherwise, the
emperor was similar to a ceremonial head of
state today in many ways: He represented
Germany abroad but had little actual
diplomatic agency, he was the highest judge
in the empire but could only exercise his
power in the courts, he appointed officials
and had his own household staff, and he
could withhold his consent to new laws,
preventing them from being passed.

The Reichstag was the council of the empire,
made up of representatives from all its
regions. The Reichstag served at the
emperor’s pleasure until 1653, after which a
new member of the Reichstag had to be
approved by the College of Princes and the
College of Electors (effectively, the other
members and the electors).

The main body of the Reichstag was the
College of Princes, which was made up of
members called states of the empire. In the
early days, a state of the empire was
attached to a particular portion of land—so
the owner of that land would go to the
Reichstag as its representative and use its
vote. If there were several owners of that
land (which became increasingly common as
landowners divided their lands between their
sons on their deaths), they had to share that
vote in the Reichstag. This meant that if
someone held different portions of land
around the empire, they could end up
sharing several votes on the Reichstag with
different people, without outright owning a
single vote. On top of this, the emperor
could make a particular individual into a
state, giving him a vote even if he held no
land—this privilege was removed in 1653. A
state of the empire also had several rights,
such as forming its own council and making
its own treaties with countries outside the
empire. In effect, each state of the empire
was its own country, which sent a single vote
but (sometimes) multiple representatives to
the Reichstag, depending on who owned the
land that made up that state. In addition,
some states were specifically defined as
having only a single vote, which only one
individual could use, or shared votes, which
could be shared between the state’s

To make matters worse, there were also units
bigger and smaller than the states: The
electors had their own college in the
Reichstag, where they had much more
influence than their measly number would
suggest (there were over 1,000 states of the
empire), and there were the imperial cities,
independent city-states which were grouped
into benches that were led by different cities
at different times. The city with the most
prominence was usually the city in which the
Reichstag was meeting that day. (The empire
had no permanently defined capital.) The
rights of different states, electors, and cities
also varied depending on whether or not
they were held by a member of the clergy or
a member of the nobility.

Thankfully, the whole sorry affair was put to
an end by Napoleon in 1806 when he created
the Confederation of the Rhine following the
Battle of Austerlitz.

1. Inca Empire

At its height, the Inca Empire numbered over
ten million people. Despite its great
population, however, the number of ethnic
Inca was a lot smaller. The empire united
many different Andean peoples with wildly
different cultures and languages in a single
unit, ruled by a single man—their god-king,
who was the son of their all-powerful sun
god. The state was highly organized and
hierarchical, with the king at the top, closely
followed by his dead ancestors, who were
mummified and preserved (and even
consulted for advice in elaborate rituals at
times of crisis). Immediately beneath the
king was his council of ten families closely
related to the royal family, who advised the
king and helped in the running of the
empire. Beneath them was another council
of ten noble Inca families, which was
followed by another council of ten non-Inca
families from other parts of the empire.
Beneath them, the empire was split into 80
regions, each led by a governor, whose job it
was to administrate his region and ensure
that the enormous amount of data the
empire collected from its people was
properly recorded, kept, and transported
back to the capital. To ensure that the
governors remained loyal to the empire,
their heirs were taken to the Inca capital at
Cuzco to be held under house arrest, where
the king and his allies could keep an eye on

But the most unusual thing about the Inca
Empire was that, despite its large population
and extremely organized bureaucracy, it had
no system of currency or written language.

The government collected a census every
year that recorded births, deaths, marriages,
individual workers’ skills and statuses, and
the amount of goods in each region, among
other things. It was used to help the central
government decide on where to build new
state projects, where food needed to be
distributed, where to send laborers (who
were sometimes traded as a commodity), and
so on.

They did all this, even lacking a written
language and despite the many cultural and
linguistic barriers across their empire, by
using quipu , which involved tying knots on
strings to represent values. These strings
allowed the Inca to develop a rather
advanced credit/debit system not unlike
modern Western accounting, built on the
base-ten system that we use for mathematics
across the world today. The quipu knots
were used to record everything from the
numbers of different goods in stockpiles to
the distances traversed by enemy armies.

Because it didn’t rely on knowledge of a
written language to work, it could be used
across the empire, without people having to
learn each others’ languages.


0 Like

9. Iceland

When Iceland was settled by the Vikings
around 850, it was too far away from a
center of authority for any king to really
control it. The result was a medieval Viking
republic, governed by the Althing from
around 930, making it the oldest
continuously functioning parliament in the

By 930, the population of Iceland had grown
to the point where many people decided they
needed a way to organize their own laws and
attitudes toward people from outside
Norway. From around then, for two weeks in
June every year (the best time for traveling),
the Althing met at Thingvellir to discuss
matters of law. The country was split into 36
chieftaincies, each of which sent a chieftain
and two advisers to the Althing. Chieftains—
called gothis—were nominated by the people
who lived in their chieftaincy, so they were
usually the best-connected and most well-
liked person in their region.

The Althing was directed by the lawspeaker, a
chieftain who was chosen by the other
chieftains to serve for three years. The
lawspeaker was effectively the living
constitution of Iceland, and he and his
advisers were expected to know all the laws
of Iceland by heart. He would start the
Althing by reciting the laws from memory
and then would help to facilitate debate
between the chieftains by helping them
resolve matters through the law or create
new laws if they were needed. He held no
more power than another chieftain, though,
and Iceland had no single head of state.

The Althing was more than a meeting of
politicians, though—hundreds of people
from across Iceland would travel to the
Althing to trade, party, catch up with old
friends, and make or break family alliances
or agreements, such as arranged marriages
or fosterships.

8. Venice
One of the longest-lived republics in
European history, the Venetians first elected
a doge to lead them in 727 and were
governed by elected officials until the city’s
conquest in 1797, over 1,000 years later.

The Venetian system was so robust because
it had lots of different moving parts, each
wielding different amounts of power and
having some level of influence over the
others—a concept integral to modern
democracy. The doge was the head of the
system, appointed for life and the de facto
ruler of Venice. Despite this, his power was
restricted in many ways: The doge was
unable to name his successor or even a
preferred successor (to prevent certain
families from dominating the position), he
was banned from leaving Venice, and all his
mail was read by an independently elected
censor who reported to the public.
The systems that made up the Venetian
government changed over time, but the
most important were the Collegio, a council
of 40 men from the elite families, the
senate, which managed finances and
diplomacy, the Council of Three, who
monitored the other branches, and the grand
chancellor, who ran the city’s bureaucracy.

All these officials were chosen by and from
the members of the Great Council, which
consisted of 1,000 people who were all
chosen from a list of 180 great families—
making Venice an oligarchy, not a true
democracy. To complicate matters further,
some people were allowed to be members of
several government bodies at the same time.
Nothing sums up the crazy Venetian system
better than the way they elected the doge :

First, 30 members of the Great Council were
chosen at random and then reduced at
random to nine. These nine chose 40 more
Great Council members, who were reduced
at random to 12. These 12 chose 25, who
were reduced to nine. These nine then
elected 45 members, who were reduced to
11, and these 11 chose the 41 who elected
the doge by majority vote. The final number
was originally 40 but was increased to 41
after a tie in 1229.

Venice’s masterminded system was ultimately
toppled by the introduction of the Council of
Ten around 1310. Originally designed to
monitor the other bodies and prevent them
from taking too much power, it seized more
and more power for itself over time and
even had its own secret police force. By
1600, Venice had effectively become a

7. Florence

At the end of the 1200s, many Northern
Italian cities rejected the rule of wealthy
nobles and instead turned to the rule of the
popolo, and Florence was no different. In
1293, the city enacted the Ordinances of
Justice, which blocked the 152 noble families
of the city from holding political office.

From then on, the people would rule.
Of course, it wasn’t quite so simple. Though
government was no longer restricted to the
nobility, to be part of the popolo, a citizen
had to be a member of one of the seven
major guilds of the city (the judges, cloth
traders, moneylenders, silk traders, doctors,
wool traders, and fur traders); the members
of the five minor guilds (the butchers,
shoemakers, smiths, masons, and
secondhand traders) also had a lesser status
in the popolo.

Together, they elected the Signoria, who
served a term of just two months and were
the highest authority in the city. The Signoria
was led by the gonfalionere, a member of
the Signoria who was chosen at random. The
Signoria met every day in the Palazzo della
Signoria (today known as the Palazzo
Vecchio), where they discussed government
matters and decided on legislation to
introduce, which would then have to be
passed by the Twelve Good Men.

The two-month term limit led to an acute
interest in politics and much factional
infighting, mainly because power was always
within grasp for any aspiring politician. For
most of the republic’s history, politics was
dominated by antagonism (and sometimes
outright civil wars) between the Guelphs,
who supported the pope, and the
Ghibellines, who supported the German
emperor. The gonfalionere’s term limit was
extended to life in 1498, after which
Florence was dominated by the rule of the
Medici family, who eventually made
themselves the hereditary rulers of the
Duchy of Florence in 1533, ending the
republican government.

6. Republic Of Novgorod

While Novgorod was always ruled by a
prince, the veche held the most power.
The veche was effectively made up of every
male citizen of the city and made
government decisions through mass meetings
in which people voted on the issues of the
day. The veche could be convened by any
free man of the city by ringing the veche bell
in the town square, which was the official
signal for any interested citizens to
congregate in the square and participate in

The prince remained the head of state , but
he was severely restricted by a constitution
introduced by the veche : The prince was
banned from engaging in commerce, for
example, and could not hold land or have a
personal army of more than 50 people.

Other than the prince, the veche elected the
posadnik (mayor) and tysyatsky (militia
commander), who were in charge of day-to-
day government.

As Novgorod grew in size and influence, the
government became more advanced: By
1291, the state was managed by the council
of lords, which was made up of the
archbishop, a representative of the prince,
the posadniks and tysyatsky of Novgorod,
and the posadniks of other regions in the
republic outside the city. Novgorod was split
into five veches , which each elected their
own posadnik. The territories the republic
owned outside the city were also split into
five regions, each with their own posadnik.

The republic’s end ultimately came from
outside, from the city of Muscovy (aka
Moscow), their ancient rival. Muscovy’s
strength increased over the 14th and 15th
centuries until, in 1478, the Muscovite
prince and his army conquered Novgorod
and removed the veche bell, officially ending
the republic.

Continue Reading Below

0 Like

5. World War II

While many thought World War I was over,
deep roots of resentment and anger still
existed in certain parts of Europe. With the
rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany, the war
started with the invasion of Poland in 1939
and continued as they began to advance on
France and Belgium. The war included all
parts of the world, such as the Soviet Union,
China, and Japan. By the end of the war,
millions of lives had been lost, Europe was a
devastated wasteland, and new superpowers
such as the Soviet Union and the United
States rose up to create a new order and new

4. Cold War

With the end of World War II came a new
type of war, the Cold War. The Soviet Union
advanced on Eastern Europe, trying to spread
Communism, while the West held onto
Democracy, creating the Iron Curtain. With
the threat of nuclear weapons wiping out
millions in a matter of seconds, the Cold War
was born and would continue for decades,
using a war of undercover intelligence, words,
and diplomacy. The Cold War ended in 1991
with the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe
and Russia.

3. Sputnik

During the Cold War, new tensions rose with
the Soviet Union launching Sputnik, the first
satellite into space. It shocked the United
States and sparked a space race between the
two countries. The technological achievements
created out of the Space Race included
advanced weaponry, the ability for man to
land on the Moon, artificial limbs, water
purifiers, and satellite TV.

2. JFK Assassination

President John F. Kennedy championed many
efforts during his time as United States
president, including softening tensions during
the Cold War, advancing the space program,
and fighting for Civil Rights. But with his
assassination, much of his efforts were
suddenly thrown into limbo. Luckily, his
successor President Lyndon Johnson helped
push forward his vision, and Johnson used
JFK’s legacy as a way to push Congress to pass
the Civil Rights Act as well as fund NASA.
Consequently, however, the biggest impact of
the JFK assassination could arguably be the
continuation of the Vietnam War. With his
reluctance to put boots on the ground, many
historians don’t believe JFK would have heated
up the war like LBJ. Without a Vietnam War,
the world would have looked much different.

1. Digital Revolution

With the advancement of computers and the
internet, the Digital Revolution has and
continues to change the economic and
information landscape. In many parts of the
world, new businesses and jobs have grown
out of the creation of the Internet, but it also
has provided challenges. With hackers stealing
millions of dollars and identities, the mass
spying from the NSA, and the use of false
information to disrupt democracies, we
certainly live in a brave new world.


0 Like

10. Industrial Revolution

From the 18th and the 19th centuries,
something amazing came out of Britain.
Before, manufacturing mostly came out of
people’s homes or at shops but suddenly all
that shifted to major factories with machines
helping mass-produce all kinds of textiles. It’s
called the Industrial Revolution, and it
changed Britain, Europe, and America from
mostly agrarian societies to urban and
industrial. Out of it came major innovations
like trains and automobiles. Even though it
provided serious challenges for the poorer
classes, it improved the lives of the middle

9. The Medical Revolution

Before the early parts of the 19th century,
medicine was pretty much still in the dark
ages. Some strides had been made, but it
wasn’t until the Medical Revolution that things
began to change. It came out of the Industrial
Revolution and the discovery that disease was
caused by microorganisms. With the ability to
mass produce new medicines in pill form and
create anesthetics, health care took on a new
form and would lead to some of the greatest
discoveries in human history, like vaccinations
and antibiotics.

8. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand II

The Industrial Revolution changed a lot of
things, but one major ramification was the
growing sense of identity and nationalism. By
1914, with new technological innovations like
tanks, machine guns, and deadly gases, Europe
had become a powderkeg of factions just
waiting to go to war. So, on June 28th, 1914,
Arch-Duke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the
Austro-Hungarian Empire, toured Sarajevo to
inspect the armed forces in Bosnia, something
Serbian Nationalists weren’t happy about.
Ferdinand and his wife were shot by Gavrilo
Princip, a Serbian Nationalist. The Serbian
government was blamed for the attack which
sparked World War I.

7. October Revolution

While many of Europe’s revolutions saw
changes toward Republicanism, Russia’s
October Revolution (aka the Bolshevik
Revolution) saw their politics moving in a
totally different direction towards
Communism. Led by Vladamir Lenin and the
Bolsheviks against the Tsar and his ruling
class, the October Revolution was complete in
1917. Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown and
executed, ushering in the Soviet era.

6. Great Depression

With World War I over, the 1920’s brought
about rapid economic growth in the United
States, but it all came to a screeching halt
with the crash in 1929. Millions of investors’
dollars were lost, banks had collapsed, and 15
million Americans were unemployed. This
created a ripple effect across the globe with
almost every country seeing largescale
unemployment and deflation. It lasted a
decade and resulted in major changes in
financial institutions, economic policy, and
theory. While the United States and other
countries began to see signs of a recovery by
1939, World War II gave it a final push.

Continue Reading Below

0 Like

15. Protestant Reformation

Something else that came out of the
Renaissance, with the help of the printing
press, was the Protestant Reformation.
Starting with Martin Luther’s 95 Theses, which
argued against the Pope’s use of indulgences,
the Reformation grew with others like John
Calvin and Henry VIII questioning the Pope’s
and the Catholic Church’s authority. These
grievances caused the church to split into
various denominations such as the Lutheran
Church and the Anglican Church. Both
positives and negatives grew from this split,
including bloody persecutions on the one
hand and strengthened universities, art, and
education on the other.

14. European Colonialism

Roughly from the 1500’s to 1960’s, Europe
expanded all across the globe. From the New
World to Africa, India, and Asia, Europe
created colonies on almost every continent on
the Earth. With colonialism came greater
trade…which meant greater wealth for the
Europeans and mostly slavery and
impoverishment for everyone else. As time
went on, many of the colonies sought
independence, and after World War II, a
devastated Europe began to lose control.

13. American Revolution

The American Revolution of the 13 British
Colonies was a major shift in the status quo.
Originally fought over taxation without
representation, the revolution expanded into
Enlightenment ideals and giving rights to all
people. With the colonies beating back the
English and winning the war, the Americans
not only won a war for themselves but for the
entire world, inspiring many other countries
to fight against the ruling classes.

12. French Revolution

Inspired out of the American Revolution, the
French Revolution changed France and Europe
forever. What began as a protest against the
French monarchy and the elite turned into a
discourse of republicanism, human rights, and
citizenship. Unfortunately, it became bloody
and violent and rather than leading to the
latter ideals became entrenched in nationalism
and dictatorship. While the revolution was
messy, out of it came Enlightenment-based
philosophy which also reverberated around
the world.

11. The American Civil War

Many believe The American Civil War was a
mere family matter which only impacted the
United States, but in reality, it had wide-
ranging effects across the globe. For many in
Europe, the American Civil War was evidence
of Republicanism crumbling. America was a
shining example of the experiment, and if it
couldn’t withstand and stay united, what hope
was left? Thankfully, the North succeeded and
reunited with the South, surprising many but
also proving Republican institutions can
remain intact after a hard and bloody war.
Also, with America making slavery illegal, the
slave trade virtually collapsed with other
countries in the Americas, like Cuba and
Brazil, also abolishing it. It’s quite possible
that if the North had not won, legalized
slavery would have continued on into the
modern day.

Continue Reading Below

0 Like

20. Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire

Let’s hop over to Asia now and look at
Genghis Khan , the ruler of one of the largest
empires in human history. Few would actually
point to Khan as someone who radically
changed history, but his Mongol Empire had
sweeping effects in their time and beyond.
First, the Mongolian army was a terror,
conquering, slaughtering, and pillaging
wherever they went. But they were also good
at being pragmatic and including and adopting
all cultures to please the masses and maintain
control. By almost uniting Eurasia, they were
able to spread technologies like paper,
gunpowder, the compass, and even trousers.

19. The Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic
Plague, earned its name by spreading across
Europe and leaving thousands of dead bodies
in its wake. By the end, 75 million people are
estimated to have died. Afterward, with a
human shortage in Europe, serfs could now
have their pick of who to work for, resulting
in better conditions for them and their
families. People were much more bitter
towards the Catholic Church, and anti-
Semitism grew with many claiming the Jews
started it in the first place.

18. The Fall of Constantinople

Built by the Roman Emperor Constantine in
330 CE, Constantinople served as the
Byzantine Empire’s capital for centuries.
Famous for its impervious walls, few thought
it could actually be conquered. However, with
the rise and spread of Islam, the capital
eventually fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
With the Ottoman Turks now having a
foothold in Europe, the balance of power
suddenly changed. Many Greeks converted to
Islam or fled west. The conquest symbolized a
victory for Islam as they saw Constantinople
as an affront to them.

17. The Renaissance

During the time of the Middle Ages and the
Black Death, education and knowledge were
relatively stagnant. But starting in the 15th
century, there was a rebirth of knowledge, art,
and culture that started in Italy and spread
across Europe. This Renaissance (rebirth)
brought with it new technologies and
advancements, which created more prosperity
and wealth.

16. The Gutenberg Printing Press

One of the greatest inventions of the
Renaissance was The Gutenberg Printing Press.
Gutenberg took the idea of printing from Asia
but made it much easier and more efficient
with his press. The first books he printed were
Bibles, and they were all sold before he even
finished them. The printing press fanned the
flames of reading, education, and knowledge
with the new capability of mass printing
books that would have previously been copied
by hand.

Continue Reading Below

0 Like

NSF Banner Ads NSF Banner Ads NSF Banner Ads
Download the Ngstudentforum app for Android Devices

Disclaimer: Every Nigeria Student Forum member is solely responsible for anything that he/she posts or uploads on Nigeria Student Forum.
- Copyright © 2016 - 2020. All rights reserved.